Existential to Adlerian Therapy essay

Existential Therapy also referred to as counseling is an approach to the core reasons as to the existence of human beings. It is a theory that aims at answering questions on; 1) The existence of a human being and the reasons for the short lifespan, 2) The freedom of individuals to make informed decisions, 3) Challenges that face human beings and 4) The threat posed by meaningless of what life has to offer.  These four items referred to as given (Cooper, 2003), form the framework in which the psychotherapist knows how to deal with an individual’s problem and their collective remedy.

It is a therapy that aims at raising the hopes of individuals and making them aware of the fact that they are the author of their lives. It provides relief to individuals who have lacked the meaning of life. The theory views human beings as individuals who go through gradual change and transformation within a given period of their lives. This is through their strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities, freedom, limitations and threats in the environment, in which they grow. Existential Therapy aims at achieving some specific goals which include; 1) Creating self awareness to individuals and encouraging people to live authentic lives, 2) It encourages individuals to take responsibility of decision they make, 3) It encourages individuals to find meaning of life and the underlying truths, 4) Therapists help individuals to deal with situations of anxiety by examining the cause of anxiety and helping them cope with the situation, 5) It helps individuals appreciate their present lives and live to the maximum.

Adlerian Therapy

dlerian therapy, named after a good Australian doctor who has been also a psychotherapist in addition to his name was Alfred Adler. Adler believed that folks were connected to the encircling environment. It is the therapy that revolves around human beings right from delivery, the approach to life the individual lifestyles, the social interaction associated with individuals and the brilliance and inferiority complex of individuals as the building obstructs of an individual’ s personality. Therefore, this is a therapy that aims at getting to know individuals in their social context. Adler advocated regarding equality of all human beings and a democratic way of raising kids from birth within a family. The Adlerian Remedy addresses the problem of do it yourself actualization and esteem of individuals and its unwanted side effects to an individual’s well being. This is a therapy that variations within the creative power associated with an individual geared towards the change for the better (Connell, 1995). The therapy aims at achieving the particular following goals; 1) In order to do away with false beliefs by understanding  the particular family roots, hopes of the family and recent memories, 2) To enhance the social relations plus interests of men and women in their environment, 3) To improve the particular destructive behavior of men and women, and4) To help in solving problems amicably.

Therapists view of client’ s problem using these a couple of therapies.

Existential approach

While using the existential approach therapists tries to assist the clients understand themselves better. They work together with their clients and help them explore and understand their beliefs, ideas, judgments and assumptions. Thus, the therapist tries his best not to impose their own judgment and biases to their clients. The therapist is expected to show professionalism, while handling his clients and avoid his preconceptions. The therapist is expected to give his wise counsel based on the client’s experiences and conditions rather than what the therapist thinks ought to be the case. He is expected to approach the clients’ problem with an open-ended mind. The therapist is expected to form a relationship with the client with an aim getting a clear picture of the client’s meaning without an influence of their own meaning.            The therapists have to be aware of the client’s assumptions and their view of life with clarity so that the client is not confused. The therapist helps the client understand and make maximum use of their strengths and opportunities for their own good and at the same time helps the clients counter their weaknesses and limitations. Therapists are expected to value the meaning attached to beliefs, emotions, thoughts and culture of the client.

It is also expected that, therapist should view the clients problems in a framework comprising of four parts as described here; 1) Existence of the client in the physical environment, the health of the client and his illness, 2) The social interaction dimension of the client with the public, 3) The personal relation i.e. relationship with oneself and with others, 4) Spiritual relationship and the philosophical meanings. This framework gives the therapist an idea of the client’s world.

The existential therapy seeks a deeper meaning of these four dimensions and therefore it understands perfectly well the existence of human beings.

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Genetic Therapy essay

Introduction

Gene therapy is among the most scrutinized medical applications. Genetic therapy characterizes the introduction of genes with the ability to prevent a disease from progressing and preferably to cure the disease.  A normally functioning gene is introduced into a cell where there are genetic anomalies or defects. In light of this, individuals, tissues or cells which have been subjected to genetic manipulation or modification are categorically transgenic. The purpose of genetic therapy is significantly the elimination of cancerous cells and pathogens, correct genes, which are defective, prevention of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders.

Types of Genetic Therapy

The application of innate therapy is characterized directly into germ-line or somatic gene therapy (Lanza, Langer, & Vacanti, 2007). Somatic gene therapy involves genes which usually have no direct relationship to reproduction. Therefore, treatments depending on somatic gene therapy don’t have an impact on subsequent offspring produced by the patients. This is because hereditary modifications on the mother and father are not transmitted to their offspring (Bertolotti, 2012). For instance, where genes are introduced within a tissue or even an organ for typically the purpose of inducing enzyme production; such alterations have no subsequent impact upon the patient’ s hereditary composition. Therefore, the introduced genes are not carried to children born following the therapy. Somatic gene remedy has an impact associated with repairing dysfunctional organs; consequently the use of gene therapy provides significant contributions to human health insurance and development (Bertolotti, 2012).

A significant software of gene therapy is the creation of DNA vaccines. These enable immune system regarding subjects to counteract plus prevent the occurrence associated with defined diseases, an actions which can be similar to that observed from conventional vaccines. Meanwhile, Germ-line cell remedy is premised on the introduction genes into reproduction cells with the intention of making a substantive change around the genetic makeup of the particular resulting offspring. Germ-line genetic therapy aims at presenting unique genes, which enhance upon the pre-existing genetic composition of the subject. Genetic changes made due to germ-line genetic therapy are often transmitted to subsequent tissue.

Incidents of Genetic Defects

The occurrence of genetic related diseases is subject on the nature associated with individual genetic composition. As a result, an individual’ s hereditary makeup may comprise both normal and defective genetics. Most of the time, defective genes usually are discovered when a condition or an abnormality provides itself. The occurrence of a disease associated with genetic defects may reveal on individuals who are closely related to the individual (Giacca, 2010). Therefore, members of the family may be carriers or perhaps subjects of genetic problems. Various genetic related diseases and disorders have been identifid; however , these vary on the degree within which they impact a patient’ s health. Whilst genes have been ascribed to an individual’ s affinity for infections, additional factors such as way of life, diet and environment are usually equal contributors to the occurrence of disease.

Mostly traders who are carriers regarding defective genes remain not affected since they possess an individual copy of the faulty gene. Consequently, the hereditary disease is expressed by way of a combination of two duplicates in the defective gene; consequently, an important number of people do not manifest typically the respective genetic disease. Because of this, greater accidental injuries of genetic diseases are really seen in children from parents of the identical lineage. However, in the event that the defective gene is dominant, the associated disease could manifest on anyone transporting the defective gene (Lanza et al., 2007). Meanwhile, the presence of a dominant defective gene inside an individual would not imply the occurrence of illness. However, combinations of additional factors such as the particular environment are significant in order to the manifestation of numerous conditions. For instance, coronary illnesses often have a genetic aspect; however, the incident in the disease is substantially impacted by lifestyle and diet (Hajjar, 2013).

Treatment options

Gene therapy requires gene coding for diseases to be identified precisely. There have been notable developments in the identification of genes associated with incidents of various diseases such as heart diseases and Alzheimer’s disease (Giacca, 2010). The identification of these genes has enabled accurate diagnosis of diseases in patients. This is a significant development if the treatment of genetic disease since they be diagnosed accurately without subjecting the patient to a battery of unnecessary tests (Giacca, 2010).  The advances in biotechnology have made it easy to identify and detect abnormal genes. These have ensured that genetic therapy is delivered to the target in an effective, accurate and controlled manner.

The use of appropriate techniques in the delivery of DNA is critical since there must be an accurate reception of the appropriate genes by the target cells. For instance, naked DNA can be deployed directly to the affected cells or unique vectors can be used to transfer genes to the target cells in a more efficient and faster way. These vectors include viruses or plasmids which are used to transfer recombinant DNA between cells. Retroviruses comprise unique Ribonucleic Acid viruses which can place their nucleic acids into the target cells (Escors, Breckport, Arce, Kochan, & Stephenson, 2012). Other vectors include retrotransposons, Adenovirus and liposomes which are used to place and integrate genes into the target cells. The use of retrovirus aims at removing any harmful genes while appropriate corrective genes are used to replace the removed harmful genes. Consequently, the resulting restructured retrovirus is subsequently introduced into the subject.

Vectors are faced with a challenge since the patient’s immuune system may resist them. Therefore, their ability to survive and accomplish delivering the corrective genes to the targeted cells is critical. Since, the action of the virus is through the infection of the target cells, the immune system reacts to this by counteracting and neutralizing the retrovirus (Lanza et al., 2007). Additionally, the viruses that survive the immune system must breach the cellular membranes in order to combine its genome with that of the host cell where the therapeutic genes are introduced into the infected cells.

The integration of the virus genome and the infected cell’s genome is a random act; however, this should take place in a non essential area of the DNA to the target genome (Escors et al., 2012). This prevents the occurrence of complications. Consequently, the gene being introduced should be transcribed and expressed to ensure that the correct enzyme is produced. Significantly, the use of direct injections of the therapeutic genes into the affected areas have been found to have more success in preventing the reactions associated with the immune system fighting the delivery vectors (Bertolotti, 2012). For instance, the direct injection of genes in treating lung cancer suppresses the growth of the cancerous tissue.

Risks of Gene Therapy

A significant consideration of gene therapy is the potential for ephemeral advantage to the patient. This has been observed in various clinical trials where the effects of the gene therapy would last for a number of weeks or months followed by the subsequent emergence of the disease (Giacca, 2010). This has been attributed to a decrease in the modified cells especially in cases of somatic gene therapy. These cells are differentiated from other cells and in most cases they ability to multiply have been curtailed. As a result, the depletion of the treated cells leads to high chances of the disease emerging again. Additionally, a patient may become allergic to the genetic therapy resulting to complications. While there are associated risks with any form of therapy, such risks must be measured against the accruing benefits. Such a consideration would determine whether genetic therapy is beneficial or otherwise.

Conclusion

Genetic therapy has been characterized by heated ethical debates, significantly in cases where germ-line genetic therapy is applied. The manipulation of reproductive cells in an attempt to modify the genetic makeup of offspring has been characterized as unethical and premised on interfering with natural processes. Meanwhile, after consideration of the benefits and drawbacks of germ-line genetic manipulation, it is evident that the drawbacks exceed the benefits by a significant margin; therefore, germ-line genetic therapy in relation to reproduction is prohibited.  Given the successes of genetic research on the treatment of various genetic defects, there is a significant potential for genetic therapy being able to cure more advanced diseases such as cancer and heart diseases.

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Adlerian and Reality Therapy essay

Adlerian therapy and reality therapy are two examples of psychotherapy commonly used in counseling. Psychotherapy counseling of clients is through interaction between a professional counselor and a client. This treatment tries to improve the well being of an individual. Schools and psychological institutions widely use Alderian and Reality therapy to improve mental health. The two mentioned counseling approaches uses different concepts, but they share other things.

Adlerian therapy bases on the interactions and conflicts that creates an individual’ s feelings or ego. According in order to Adler, ego is the particular epi-center of personality, and it makes an personal (Carlson, 2005). It stimulates and also informs the client in order to proper the mistakes in the collaborative way. In very a related way, Fact therapy, bases on the particular connection of a particular person and other people (Wubbolding, 2010). The unsatisfactory or not enough connection between people creates problems at the individual levl.

Commonalities

The concepts regarding both therapies focus about the present. Adler believes that the childhood experience tend not to matter as much, but it is the belief and the lessons sucked from the past that issues most (Carlson, 2005). Reality therapy, alternatively, argues that the unsatisfactory relation that will we have currently, leads to the difficulties and not the past.

While giving reality therapy, it is necessary to avoid blaming, criticism or making complains since it discourages the client. Adlerian therapy also involves a lot of encouragements which builds self-confidence and enhances courage to take life positively. 

Differences

While Alderman Therapy works on rediscovering self, Reality therapy aims at reconnecting the client and other people. It involves looking into the issues causing the problem. The reality therapy also eemphasizes on the realization that it is only through excuses that the relation breaks; and workable plans support the reconnection of individual. In contrast,  Adlerian therapy aims at the rediscovering of self and developing better behaviors. In addition to the contrast, Adlerian therapy believes that people with the inferiority complex do not function properly in the society just as in the case of birth order. On the other hand, the use of choice theory enables the client realize that the only person they can take control over is themselves, and the reconnection with other people will work out well.

Conclusion

Whether on the approach of Adler or reality, the most important, expected result is the accommodating and thriving relationship between an individual and other people. Be it through self-recognition (Adler) or appreciation and maintaining competent relationship with other people (reality therapy), counseling is undoubtedly helpful. 

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