Intro to Psychology Exam 4 (Final)

A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
A. agoraphobia.
B. survivor resiliency.
C. dissociation.
D. stimulus generalization.
D. stimulus generalization.

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
A. a persistent irrational fear of other people.
B. feelings of personal worthlessness.
C. delusions of persecution.
D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
B. feelings of personal worthlessness.

Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by
A. using personality tests to accurately diagnose the person’s difficulties.
B. increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
C. discouraging people from using antidepressant drugs.
D. using progressive relaxation to reduce anxiety.
B. increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use
A. virtual reality.
B. token economies.
C. rTMS.
D. randomized clinical trials.
D. randomized clinical trials.

David Rosenham and his fellow researchers were admitted as patients into various hospitals after they falsely complained of auditory hallucinations. After hospital clinicians analyzed these patients’ quite normal life histories, the
A. clinicians refused to prescribe any medications for these patients.
B. clinicians identified patient life history dynamics that contributed to a psychological disorder.
C. patients were typically discharged from the hospital in less than a day after admission.
D. patients actually began to experience auditory hallucinations.
B. clinicians identified patient life history dynamics that contributed to a psychological disorder.

In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of
A. humanistic therapy.
B. biomedical therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. cognitive therapy.
C. behavior therapy.

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
A. humanistic therapy.
B. psychodynamic therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. cognitive therapy.
C. behavior therapy.

MRI-guided precision surgery is occasionally done to cut the brain circuits involved in severe cases of
A. schizophrenia.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. depression.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who specialize in the practice of psychotherapy are typically
A. psychoanalysts.
B. psychiatrists.
C. psychopharmacologists.
D. clinical psychologists.
D. clinical psychologists.

Which of the following best illustrates a form of psychotherapy?
A. electroconvulsive therapy
B. systematic desensitization
C. psychosurgery
D. rTMS
B. systematic desensitization

We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained from a ________ perspective.
A. psychoanalytic
B. learning
C. humanistic
D. biological
D. biological

After discontinuing heavy use of an antianxiety drug, Angela experienced increased anxiety and difficulty sleeping. Angela was experiencing symptoms of
A. neurogenesis.
B. transference.
C. tardive dyskinesia.
D. withdrawal.
D. withdrawal.

Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
A. mood-stabilizing drugs
B. antianxiety drugs
C. antipsychotic drugs
D. antidepressant drugs
C. antipsychotic drugs

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.
A. clearly communicate their diagnosis of a client’s disorder
B. genuinely express their own true feelings
C. identify a hierarchy of the client’s anxiety-arousing experiences
D. explain the immediate causes of a client’s difficulties
B. genuinely express their own true feelings

Inserting a medical instrument through each eye socket was part of a procedure known as
A. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.
B. a lobotomy.
C. stress inoculation training.
D. the double-blind procedure.
B. a lobotomy.

Meta-analysis refers to
A. counseling and treatment of troubled individuals by friends, family, and other nonprofessionals.
B. the technique of simply rephrasing much of what a client says during the course of therapy.
C. the use of a variety of therapeutic techniques in the treatment of a single client.
D. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
D. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.

In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are
A. less intense and more prolonged.
B. more intense and more prolonged.
C. more intense and less prolonged.
D. less intense and less prolonged.
C. more intense and less prolonged.

Benny’s mother tries to reduce his fear of sailing by giving the 3-year-old his favorite candy as soon as they board the boat. The mother’s strategy best illustrates
A. counterconditioning.
B. transference.
C. the placebo effect.
D. cognitive therapy.
A. counterconditioning.

Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
A. bipolar disorder.
B. an anxiety disorder.
C. anorexia nervosa.
D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
B. an anxiety disorder.

Decreasing negative thoughts by engaging in a pleasant activity is a cognitive therapy technique designed to
A. reattribute responsibility.
B. examine consequences.
C. reduce anxiety.
D. reveal one’s beliefs.
C. reduce anxiety.

The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.
A. classify
B. cure
C. explain
D. prevent
A. classify

Mrs. Coleman is a withdrawn schizophrenia patient. To help her become more socially active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff members are making use of
A. active listening.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. classical conditioning.
D. a token economy.
D. a token economy.

An integrative therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as
A. light exposure therapy.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. psychopharmacology.
D. meta-analysis.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.

A token economy represents an application of the principles of
A. humanistic therapy.
B. classical conditioning.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. operant conditioning.
D. operant conditioning.

Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
A. meta-analysis.
B. psychotherapy.
C. aversive conditioning.
D. psychoanalysis.
B. psychotherapy.

Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
A. unconditional
B. simulated
C. systematic
D. progressive
D. progressive

Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
A. interpret patients’ transference early in the course of therapy.
B. typically take an eclectic approach to therapy.
C. prefer client-centered therapy over other forms of treatment.
D. tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
D. tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

A natural return to a state of psychological health following an extended period of depression illustrates
A. neurogenesis.
B. tardive dyskinesia.
C. counterconditioning.
D. spontaneous recovery.
D. spontaneous recovery.

Which form of therapy most directly encourages clients to question their interpretations, decatastrophize their thinking, and reattribute responsibility for past outcomes?
A. cognitive therapy
B. humanistic therapy
C. psychodynamic therapy
D. behavior therapy
A. cognitive therapy

Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
A. psychoanalytic
B. biological
C. humanistic
D. learning
D. learning

Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose their “psychic powers” when retested. This decline is best explained in terms of
A. the placebo effect.
B. progression relaxation.
C. rTMS.
D. regression toward the mean.
D. regression toward the mean.

A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.
A. mood disorders
B. the anterior cingulated cortex
C. explanatory style
D. genetic predispositions
D. genetic predispositions

The approach that has helped children with autism learn to function successfully in school involves
A. aversive conditioning.
B. stress inoculation training.
C. operant conditioning.
D. the double-blind procedure.
C. operant conditioning.

Restating and clarifying what another person says is central to
A. free association.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. active listening.
D. active listening.

D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. schizophrenia.
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D. bipolar disorder.
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
B. ensuring that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients’ real-life problems.
C. eliminating clients’ anxiety during the process of therapy.
D. encouraging severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to
A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
B. reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.
C. avoid invading clients’ psychological privacy.
D. shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.
A. facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.

Proponents of behavior modification have suggested that institutionalized patients can be weaned from ________ by shifting them to other rewards common to life outside an institution.
A. drug therapy
B. the therapeutic alliance
C. a token economy
D. a 12-step approach
C. a token economy

Dr. Genscher believes that most psychological disorders result from chemical imbalances. In her work as a therapist, Dr. Genscher is most likely to make use of
A. meta-analysis.
B. psychosurgery.
C. transference.
D. drug therapies.
D. drug therapies.

One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of
A. the double-blind procedure.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. meta-analysis.
D. counterconditioning.
A. the double-blind procedure.

Behavioral conditioning therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of
A. major depressive disorder.
B. tardive dyskinesia.
C. phobias.
D. bipolar disorders.
C. phobias.

Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to
A. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
B. take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.
C. identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
D. carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.
A. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.

Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.
A. behavior modification
B. progressive relaxation
C. unconditional positive regard
D. free association
A. behavior modification

Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because they are unrealistic in their belief that they should never experience rejection.
A. psychodynamic therapy
B. behavior modification
C. rational-emotive behavior therapy
D. systematic desensitization
C. rational-emotive behavior therapy

“For you to think you are worthless because your boyfriend sometimes criticizes you is absurd! I know a lot of highly worthy people who often receive criticisms.” This statement would most likely be made to a patient by a
A. behavior therapist.
B. client-centered therapist.
C. psychodynamic therapist.
D. rational-emotive behavior therapist.
D. rational-emotive behavior therapist.

During psychotherapy, Leon would begin to stutter whenever he began discussing personally sensitive thoughts. Sigmund Freud would have been likely to interpret this stuttering as
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. resistance.
C. neurogenesis.
D. a placebo effect.
B. resistance.

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
A. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
B. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.
C. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
D. hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion.
B. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

Clinicians diagnose the presence of a personality disorder using ________ of the DSM-IV-TR.
A. axis I
B. axis III
C. axis II
D. axis IV
C. axis II

Psychodynamic therapy is ________ than traditional psychoanalysis.
A. less commonly used
B. more expensive
C. briefer
D. less effective
C. briefer

Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
A. systematic desensitization.
B. cognitive therapy.
C. client-centered therapy.
D. psychoanalysis.
D. psychoanalysis.

Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are frequently prescribed for the treatment of
A. schizophrenia.
B. depression.
C. mania.
D. tardive dyskinesia.
B. depression.

Irrational beliefs and hypervigilance to any possible threats can sometimes contribute to anxiety disorders. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders can be affected by
A. flat affect.
B. catatonia.
C. cognitive influences.
D. dissociation.
C. cognitive influences.

The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrate symptoms of
A. DID.
B. OCD.
C. PTSD.
D. ADHD.
C. PTSD.

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
A. interfere with effective treatment of these disorders.
B. represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it.
C. interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders.
D. bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
D. bias our perceptions of the labeled person.

Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who specialize in the practice of psychotherapy are typically
Selected Answer:
Incorrect [None Given]
Answers:
A. psychopharmacologists.
B. psychiatrists.
C. psychoanalysts.
D. clinical psychologists.
D. clinical psychologists.

Fears can be blunted by giving people ________ as they recall a traumatic experience.
A. dopamine
B. propranolol
C. glutamate
D. norepinephrine
B. propranolol

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of
A. the biopsychosocial approach.
B. linkage analysis.
C. diagnostic labels.
D. the medical model.
C. diagnostic labels.

Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of most central interest to the advocates of
A. the biomedical therapies.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
D. preventive mental health.
D. preventive mental health.

Brain scans of PTSD patients suffering memory flashbacks reveal an aberrant and persistent activation of the
A. left occipital lobe.
B. left temporal lobe.
C. right temporal lobe.
D. right occipital lobe.
C. right temporal lobe.

To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using
A. electroconvulsive therapy.
B. aversive conditioning.
C. rTMS.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. aversive conditioning.

According to the ________ perspective, anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged mental energy associated with repressed impulses.
A. biological
B. social-cognitive
C. learning
D. psychoanalytic
D. psychoanalytic

Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
A. antianxiety
B. mood-stabilizing
C. antidepressant
D. antipsychotic
A. antianxiety

Compared with placebos, antidepressant drugs provide ________ benefits to patients with severe symptoms of depression and ________ benefits to patients with mild symptoms of depression.
A. minimal; substantial
B. substantial; substantial
C. substantial; minimal
D. minimal; minimal
C. substantial; minimal

Neuroscientists have found decreased axonal white matter in the brains of people with
A. agoraphobia.
B. depression.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. seasonal affective disorder.
C. bipolar disorder.

Of those who commit suicide, about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.
A. one-tenth; most
B. one-third; only a minority
C. one-third; most
D. one-tenth; only a minority
C. one-third; most

Which treatment procedure involves the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain?
A. rTMS
B. long-term potentiation
C. psychosurgery
D. the double-blind procedure
A. rTMS

Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person’s role within a social system?
A. family therapy
B. psychoanalysis
C. cognitive therapy
D. client-centered therapy
A. family therapy

Which of the following is a type of exposure therapy?
A. Topic: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
B. systematic desensitization
C. stress inoculation training
D. family therapy
B. systematic desensitization

Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. major depressive disorder.
C. dissociative disorder.
D. antisocial disorder.
B. major depressive disorder.

Many professionals outside the field of psychology are prepared to offer psychotherapy in the process of completing a graduate program in
A. philosophy.
B. anthropology.
C. social work.
D. law.
C. social work.

Most combat-stressed veterans do not later exhibit post-traumatic stress disorder. This best illustrates
A. resistance.
B. resilience.
C. unconditional positive regard.
D. transference.
B. resilience.

Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
A. interpersonal psychotherapy
B. systematic desensitization
C. cognitive therapy
D. humanistic therapy
A. interpersonal psychotherapy

Two counterconditioning techniques for replacing unwanted responses are
A. spontaneous recovery and stress inoculation training.
B. aversive conditioning and exposure therapy.
C. systematic desensitization and free association.
D. unconditional positive regard and transference.
B. aversive conditioning and exposure therapy.

A natural return to a state of psychological health following an extended period of depression illustrates
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. counterconditioning.
D. neurogenesis.
B. spontaneous recovery.

Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry’s behavior is most characteristic of
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
B. generalized anxiety disorder.
C. social phobia.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Decreasing negative thoughts by engaging in a pleasant activity is a cognitive therapy technique designed to
A. examine consequences.
B. reattribute responsibility.
C. reveal one’s beliefs.
D. reduce anxiety.
D. reduce anxiety.

Deep-brain stimulation involves the implantation of ________ into the brain.
A. lithium
B. new nerve cells
C. electrodes
D. DNA
C. electrodes

Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)
A. increased externalization of blame.
B. decrease in self-focused thinking.
C. increased obsession with experiencing physical pleasure.
D. increased expectation of negative outcomes.
D. increased expectation of negative outcomes.

Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
A. antipsychotic
B. antianxiety
C. mood-stabilizing
D. antidepressant
A. antipsychotic

Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
A. disinhibiting.
B. disorganized.
C. deviant.
D. dysfunctional.
C. deviant.

A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.
A. mood disorders
B. explanatory style
C. the anterior cingulated cortex
D. genetic predispositions
D. genetic predispositions

The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with
A. antisocial disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. generalized anxiety disorder.
D. a dissociative disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
A. offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
B. hyperactive, wildly optimistic states of emotion.
C. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.
D. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
C. a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. non-suicidal self-injury.
D. post-traumatic stress disorder.
C. non-suicidal self-injury.

Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
A. the biopsychosocial approach.
B. the learning perspective.
C. DSM-IV-TR.
D. the medical model.
A. the biopsychosocial approach.

Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
A. cognitive therapy.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. client-centered therapy.
D. psychoanalysis.
D. psychoanalysis.

ECT studies that include a control condition in which people receive simulated ECT without the shock indicate that the effectiveness of ECT is partially due to
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. stress-inoculation training.
C. progressive relaxation.
D. a placebo effect.
D. a placebo effect.

Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
A. biopsychosocial
B. classical conditioning
C. psychoanalytic
D. client-centered
A. biopsychosocial

The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.
A. cure
B. classify
C. prevent
D. explain
B. classify

Kammy vividly imagines being abused by her own mother while her therapist triggers eye movements by waving a finger in front of Kammy’s eyes. The therapist is apparently using a technique known as
A. virtual reality exposure therapy.
B. EMDR.
C. transference.
D. meta-analysis.
B. EMDR.

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
B. ensuring that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients’ real-life problems.
C. encouraging severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.
D. eliminating clients’ anxiety during the process of therapy.
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.

Cognitive therapy works, top-down, by changing thought processes. Antidepressant drugs work, bottom-up, on the emotion-forming
A. sensory cortex.
B. brainstem.
C. cerebellum.
D. limbic system.
D. limbic system.

Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
A. temperaments.
B. resiliency.
C. dissociation.
D. symptoms.
B. resiliency.

Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
A. old adults.
B. young adults.
C. preadolescent children.
D. teen children.
C. preadolescent children.

During psychotherapy, Leon would begin to stutter whenever he began discussing personally sensitive thoughts. Sigmund Freud would have been likely to interpret this stuttering as
A. neurogenesis.
B. a placebo effect.
C. resistance.
D. tardive dyskinesia.
C. resistance.

Deep-brain stimulation has been reported to provide relief from
A. schizophrenia.
B. phobias.
C. dissociative disorders.
D. depression.
D. depression.

Which therapeutic approach relies most heavily on patients’ discovering their own ways of effectively dealing with their difficulties?
A. psychoanalysis
B. client-centered therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. cognitive therapy
B. client-centered therapy

Therapists’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are more likely to be overly positive because
A. clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their financial well-being.
B. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their financial well-being.
C. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.
D. clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.
C. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.

Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering seizures or memory loss?
A. psychosurgery
B. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
C. systematic desensitization
D. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
D. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.
A. higher; lower
B. lower; lower
C. higher; higher
D. lower; higher
C. higher; higher

In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
A. panic disorder
B. schizophrenia
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder
D. bipolar disorder
D. bipolar disorder

Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
A. light exposure therapy.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. cognitive therapies.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. psychoanalysis.

Gina is so fearful of taking tests for college courses that she experiences mild anxiety when registering for a course, intense anxiety when studying for a test, and extreme anxiety when answering actual test questions. Her greatest fear, however, is experienced while waiting for a professor to hand out tests. During the process of systematically desensitizing her test anxiety, the therapist is likely to ask Gina first to imagine
A. waiting for a professor to hand out tests.
B. registering for a college course.
C. studying for a test.
D. answering questions on a college test.
B. registering for a college course.

Dr. Judd is convinced that psychological disorders result largely from stressful social situations rather than from disturbances within the individual personality. Dr. Judd’s belief is most consistent with the assumptions that underlie
A. preventive mental health.
B. psychosurgery.
C. drug therapy.
D. psychoanalysis.
A. preventive mental health.

The major problem associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations
A. were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.
B. relieved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.
C. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
D. encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.
C. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.

In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
A. operant conditioning.
B. aversive conditioning.
C. transference.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. aversive conditioning.

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.
A. identify a hierarchy of the client’s anxiety-arousing experiences
B. genuinely express their own true feelings
C. explain the immediate causes of a client’s difficulties
D. clearly communicate their diagnosis of a client’s disorder
B. genuinely express their own true feelings

It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures.
A. medical model
B. learning perspective
C. biopsychosocial approach
D. social-cognitive perspective
A. medical model

Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
A. the medical model.
B. the biopsychosocial approach.
C. DSM-IV-TR.
D. the learning perspective.
B. the biopsychosocial

To help Mr. Eberstadt overcome his addiction to alcohol, his therapist first attempted to discover whether the substance dependence was somehow a reaction to his wife’s behavior. The therapist’s concern is most likely to be characteristic of a
A. psychoanalyst.
B. family therapist.
C. client-centered therapist.
D. biomedical therapist.
B. family therapist.

Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to
A. the placebo effect.
B. the therapeutic alliance.
C. stress inoculation training.
D. progressive relaxation.
A. the placebo effect.

The first psychological therapy was introduced by
A. Joseph Wolpe.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. Aaron Beck.
D. Carl Rogers.
B. Sigmund Freud.

Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
A. psychoanalytic
B. learning
C. biological
D. humanistic
B. learning

Therapists’ perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are more likely to be overly positive because
A. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.
B. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their financial well-being.
C. clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.
D. clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their financial well-being.
A. clients justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their psychological well-being.

Irrational beliefs and hypervigilance to any possible threats can sometimes contribute to anxiety disorders. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders can be affected by
A. catatonia.
B. dissociation.
C. cognitive influences.
D. flat affect.
C. cognitive influences.

Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
A. antianxiety
B. mood-stabilizing
C. antidepressant
D. antipsychotic
D. antipsychotic

Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
A. antianxiety drugs
B. antidepressant drugs
C. antipsychotic drugs
D. mood-stabilizing drugs
C. antipsychotic drugs

Which form of therapy has most directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?
A. electroconvulsive therapy
B. psychosurgery
C. drug therapy
D. cognitive therapy
C. drug therapy

Decreasing negative thoughts by engaging in a pleasant activity is a cognitive therapy technique designed to
A. reduce anxiety.
B. reveal one’s beliefs.
C. reattribute responsibility.
D. examine consequences.
A. reduce anxiety.

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
A. social phobia.
B. panic disorder.
C. generalized anxiety disorder.
D. post-traumatic stress disorder.
D. post-traumatic stress disorder.

The placebo effect refers to
A. relief from symptoms without psychotherapy.
B. the alleviation of depression and anxiety by means of aerobic exercise.
C. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
D. the use of drugs in the therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders.
C. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.

The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with
A. a dissociative disorder.
B. generalized anxiety disorder.
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D. antisocial disorder.
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Mrs. Coleman is a withdrawn schizophrenia patient. To help her become more socially active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff members are making use of
A. classical conditioning.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. active listening.
D. a token economy.
D. a token economy.

Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
B. eliminating clients’ anxiety during the process of therapy.
C. ensuring that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients’ real-life problems.
D. encouraging severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.
A. enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.

Which of the following is a type of exposure therapy?
A. Topic: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
B. family therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. stress inoculation training
C. systematic desensitization

Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with
A. antisocial disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. major depressive disorder.
D. dissociative disorder.
C. major depressive disorder.

The best outcome studies for evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy typically use
A. virtual reality.
B. randomized clinical trials.
C. rTMS.
D. token economies.
B. randomized clinical trials.

The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.
A. psychoanalytic
B. humanistic
C. cognitive
D. behavior
D. behavior

Lynn has begun to buy small gifts for her therapist, and she feels extremely jealous of the time he spends with his other patients. To a psychoanalyst, this is most indicative of
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. the placebo effect.
C. free association.
D. transference.
D. transference.

To help Claire quit smoking, a therapist delivers an electric shock to her arm each time she smokes a cigarette. The therapist is using
A. rTMS.
B. aversive conditioning.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. electroconvulsive therapy.
B. aversive conditioning.

Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.
A. mood-stabilizing
B. antipsychotic
C. antidepressant
D. antianxiety
A. mood-stabilizing

Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?
A. aversive conditioning
B. the double-blind procedure
C. systematic desensitization
D. electroconvulsive therapy
D. electroconvulsive therapy

To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both
A. internal and stable.
B. external and temporary.
C. internal and global.
D. external and global.
B. external and temporary.

One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of
A. the double-blind procedure.
B. meta-analysis.
C. counterconditioning.
D. systematic desensitization.
A. the double-blind procedure.

Neuroscientists have found decreased axonal white matter in the brains of people with
A. seasonal affective disorder.
B. agoraphobia.
C. depression.
D. bipolar disorder.
D. bipolar disorder.

“For you to think you are worthless because your boyfriend sometimes criticizes you is absurd! I know a lot of highly worthy people who often receive criticisms.” This statement would most likely be made to a patient by a
A. rational-emotive behavior therapist.
B. psychodynamic therapist.
C. client-centered therapist.
D. behavior therapist.
A. rational-emotive behavior therapist.

David Rosenham and his fellow researchers were admitted as patients into various hospitals after they falsely complained of auditory hallucinations. After hospital clinicians analyzed these patients’ quite normal life histories, the
A. patients were typically discharged from the hospital in less than a day after admission.
B. clinicians identified patient life history dynamics that contributed to a psychological disorder.
C. clinicians refused to prescribe any medications for these patients.
D. patients actually began to experience auditory hallucinations.
B. clinicians identified patient life history dynamics that contributed to a psychological disorder.

The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical procedures that directly influence the nervous system is called
A. systematic desensitization.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. psychodynamic therapy.
D. biomedical therapy.
D. biomedical therapy.

Instead of focusing on unconscious and repressed thoughts and impulses, ________ therapies focus on conscious thoughts and self-perceptions.
A. psychodynamic
B. behavior
C. humanistic
D. biomedical
C. humanistic

Compared with placebos, antidepressant drugs provide ________ benefits to patients with severe symptoms of depression and ________ benefits to patients with mild symptoms of depression.
A. substantial; substantial
B. minimal; substantial
C. substantial; minimal
D. minimal; minimal
C. substantial; minimal

Restating and clarifying what another person says is central to
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. active listening.
D. free association.
C. active listening.

Systematic desensitization is based on the idea that ________ facilitates the elimination of fear.
A. the placebo effect
B. relaxation
C. movement of the eyes
D. active listening
B. relaxation

Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. generalized anxiety disorder.
C. a phobia.
D. personality disorder.
C. a phobia.

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
A. learned habits that need to be extinguished.
B. maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
C. purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
D. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.
D. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.

Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by
A. discouraging people from using antidepressant drugs.
B. increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
C. using progressive relaxation to reduce anxiety.
D. using personality tests to accurately diagnose the person’s difficulties.
B. increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. panic disorder
D. anorexia nervosa
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Systematic desensitization involves
A. replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.
B. associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
C. associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
D. depriving a client access to an addictive drug.
C. associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

In one massive experiment, potentially delinquent boys were assigned to a 5-year treatment program that included professional counseling and family assistance. Many years later, Joan McCord’s investigation of this program’s effectiveness revealed that
A. only the therapists who were involved in the program could accurately gauge its effectiveness.
B. clients typically underestimated the truly positive effects of this program on their own lives.
C. clients who received the special treatment subsequently had fewer incidents of juvenile delinquency.
D. clients’ accounts of the program’s effectiveness were often misleading and overly positive.
D. clients’ accounts of the program’s effectiveness were often misleading and overly positive.

When Murli told his therapist, “I came to see what you could do for me,” the therapist responded, “It sounds like you’re feeling you need some help. Am I right?” The therapist’s response illustrates the technique of
A. active listening.
B. transference.
C. free association.
D. systematic desensitization.
A. active listening.

Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a ________ perspective.
A. biological
B. humanistic
C. social-cognitive
D. psychoanalytic
A. biological

Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person’s role within a social system?
A. cognitive therapy
B. family therapy
C. psychoanalysis
D. client-centered therapy
B. family therapy

The highest rates of depression occur in ________ countries among ________.
A. underdeveloped; children
B. developed; young adults
C. undeveloped; young adults
D. developed; children
B. developed; young adults

There is little or no scientific support for the therapeutic effectiveness of
A. rebirthing therapies.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. aversive conditioning.
A. rebirthing therapies.

In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor
A. used an eclectic approach.
B. practiced systematic desensitization.
C. shared the clients’ cultural values.
D. encouraged free association.
C. shared the clients’ cultural values.

A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
A. active listening.
B. free association.
C. stress inoculation training.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. free association.

Which form of therapy most directly encourages clients to question their interpretations, decatastrophize their thinking, and reattribute responsibility for past outcomes?
A. behavior therapy
B. psychodynamic therapy
C. humanistic therapy
D. cognitive therapy
D. cognitive therapy

Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.
A. psychoanalytic
B. learning
C. evolutionary
D. social-cognitive
C. evolutionary

The incidence of OCD is greatest among
A. preadolescent children.
B. teens and young adults.
C. older retired persons.
D. middle-aged adults.
B. teens and young adults.

Xanax would most likely be prescribed in order to help
A. Bradan discontinue his habit of smoking more than three packs of cigarettes a day.
B. Cynthia give up her irrational belief that her husband is a foreign government spy.
C. Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.
D. Cassius get rid of his suicidal thoughts and feelings of apathy and hopelessness.
C. Jerome overcome feelings of nervous apprehension and an inability to relax.

The value of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is in part due to the effectiveness of
A. meta-analysis.
B. exposure therapy.
C. the double-blind technique.
D. physical exercise.
B. exposure therapy.

Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.
A. major depressive disorder
B. dissociative identity disorder
C. panic disorder
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder
A. major depressive disorder

Of those who commit suicide, about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.
A. one-tenth; most
B. one-third; most
C. one-tenth; only a minority
D. one-third; only a minority
B. one-third; most

Psychopharmacology involves the study of how
A. exercise alleviates depression.
B. drugs affect mind and behavior.
C. psychosurgery and ECT influence emotions.
D. diseases influence psychological well-being.
B. drugs affect mind and behavior.

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.
A. genuinely express their own true feelings
B. identify a hierarchy of the client’s anxiety-arousing experiences
C. clearly communicate their diagnosis of a client’s disorder
D. explain the immediate causes of a client’s difficulties
A. genuinely express their own true feelings

According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to
A. have unrealistically optimistic goals in life.
B. feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.
C. experience low levels of norepinephrine.
D. experience cyclical variations in hormone levels.
B. feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.

Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
A. schizophrenia
B. dissociative identity disorder
C. anorexia nervosa
D. susto
A. schizophrenia

D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. schizophrenia.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The placebo effect typically leads us to ________ the effectiveness of therapy, and regression toward the mean typically leads us to ________ the effectiveness of therapy.
A. overestimate; overestimate
B. underestimate; overestimate
C. underestimate; underestimate
D. overestimate; underestimate
A. overestimate; overestimate

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
A. learned habits that need to be extinguished.
B. purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
C. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.
D. maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
C. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.

While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from
A. a delusion.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. a panic attack.
D. agoraphobia.
C. a panic attack.

Generalized anxiety disorder is ________ common among men than women and ________ common among younger adults than older adults.
A. more; less
B. less; less
C. less; more
D. more; more
C. less; more

Virtual reality exposure therapy is a form of
A. stress inoculation training.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. transference.
D. aversive conditioning.
B. systematic desensitization.

Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
A. associate a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
B. associate unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
C. replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.
D. establish empathic, caring relationships with others.
C. replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.

Double-blind studies enable researchers to assess the extent to which drug therapy outcomes are attributable to
A. the placebo effect.
B. progressive relaxation.
C. stress inoculation training.
D. the therapeutic alliance.
A. the placebo effect.

The placebo effect refers to
A. relief from symptoms without psychotherapy.
B. the alleviation of depression and anxiety by means of aerobic exercise.
C. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.
D. the use of drugs in the therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders.
C. the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective.

The DSM-IV-TR is most clearly designed to ________ psychological disorders.
A. classify
B. explain
C. prevent
D. cure
A. classify

Behavioral conditioning therapies have achieved especially favorable results in the treatment of
A. phobias.
B. tardive dyskinesia.
C. bipolar disorders.
D. major depressive disorder.
A. phobias.

Melissa is fearful of men and refuses to go out on dates. Her therapist suggests that she is fearful because she was sexually abused by her father when she was young. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
A. biological
B. humanistic
C. psychoanalytic
D. learning
D. learning

During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
A. feel uncontrollable grief and despair.
B. experience delusions of persecution.
C. be overactive.
D. experience visual or auditory hallucinations.
C. be overactive.

Depressed people explain their failures in terms that are internal, stable, and global. Their explanations tend to be self-focused and
A. catatonic.
B. overgeneralized.
C. dissociative.
D. free-floating.
B. overgeneralized.

During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that they each restate their spouse’s comments before making their own. The therapist was applying a technique most closely associated with
A. client-centered therapy.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. systematic desensitization.
A. client-centered therapy.

An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of
A. panic disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. antisocial disorder.
D. social phobia.
D. social phobia.

Clients who are mindful of others’ expectations may have trouble relating to therapies that encourage them to think only of their own well-being. This would be especially true for ________ clients in North America who have come from ________ countries.
A. female; European
B. male; Asian
C. male; European
D. female; Asian
D. female; Asian

Inserting a medical instrument through each eye socket was part of a procedure known as
A. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.
B. stress inoculation training.
C. the double-blind procedure.
D. a lobotomy.
D. a lobotomy.

Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from
A. stimulus generalization.
B. classical conditioning.
C. reinforcement.
D. observational learning.
B. classical conditioning.

In a therapeutic setting, a client who wants to lose weight eats some favorite foods laced with a nausea-producing drug. Yet, outside the therapist’s office the client knows he or she can eat those foods without fear of nausea. This awareness contributes to the limited effectiveness of
A. client-centered therapy.
B. the double-blind procedure.
C. aversive conditioning.
D. spontaneous recovery.
C. aversive conditioning.

As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed toaster cord. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters. This best illustrates that fear can be learned through
A. observational learning.
B. reinforcement.
C. stimulus generalization.
D. habit.
A. observational learning.

Prozac is an antidepressant drug that partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of ________ from synapses.
A. dopamine
B. serotonin
C. chlorpromazine
D. acetylcholine
B. serotonin

Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is
A. aggressive, persistent, and intentional.
B. biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.
C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
D. selfish, habitual, and avoidable.
C. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
A. major depressive disorder.
B. agoraphobia.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. PTSD.
A. major depressive disorder.

Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. major depressive disorder.
C. dissociative disorder.
D. antisocial disorder.
B. major depressive disorder.

In the United States, managed health care has limited the number of psychotherapy sessions that may be covered by insurance. This is particularly likely to discourage the widespread practice of
A. behavior modification.
B. virtual reality exposure therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. cognitive therapies.
C. psychoanalysis.

Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. antisocial personality disorder.
C. auditory hallucinations.
D. anxiety disorders.
D. anxiety disorders.

Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
A. client-centered
B. biopsychosocial
C. psychoanalytic
D. classical conditioning
B. biopsychosocial

Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.
A. mood-stabilizing
B. antianxiety
C. antipsychotic
D. antidepressant
A. mood-stabilizing

Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who specialize in the practice of psychotherapy are typically
A. psychiatrists.
B. psychoanalysts.
C. clinical psychologists.
D. psychopharmacologists.
C. clinical psychologists.

Melissa suffers from auditory hallucinations and falsely believes that her former high school teachers are trying to kill her. Melissa’s symptoms are most likely to be relieved by ________ drugs.
A. antipsychotic
B. mood-stabilizing
C. antidepressant
D. antianxiety
A. antipsychotic

A famous 12-step program is associated with
A. EMDR.
B. ECT.
C. AA.
D. rTMS.
C. AA.

According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the
A. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships.
B. conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders.
C. replacement of a genuine concern for others with self-centeredness.
D. blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy.
D. blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy.

Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?
A. systematic desensitization
B. electroconvulsive therapy
C. aversive conditioning
D. the double-blind procedure
B. electroconvulsive therapy

Deep-brain stimulation involves the implantation of ________ into the brain.
A. new nerve cells
B. lithium
C. electrodes
D. DNA
C. electrodes

Which form of therapy has been criticized for offering interpretations that cannot be proven or disproven?
A. client-centered therapy
B. psychoanalysis
C. systematic desensitization
D. cognitive-behavioral therapy
B. psychoanalysis

A World Health Organization study of 14 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.
A. Japan
B. Mexico
C. the United States
D. Germany
C. the United States

Which perspective emphasizes the role of classical conditioning in the onset of anxiety disorders?
A. learning perspective
B. humanistic perspective
C. biological perspective
D. psychodynamic perspective
A. learning perspective

Transference refers to a client’s
A. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.
B. translation of threatening dream content into nonthreatening images.
C. conversion of psychological conflicts into physical and behavioral disorders.
D. replacement of self-centeredness with a genuine concern for others.
A. expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier life relationships.

Bolstering parents’ and teachers’ skills at nurturing children’s achievement and resulting self-esteem best illustrates
A. virtual reality exposure therapy.
B. preventive mental health.
C. counterconditioning.
D. meta-analysis.
B. preventive mental health.

Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
A. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
B. anorexia nervosa.
C. an anxiety disorder.
D. bipolar disorder.
C. an anxiety disorder.

Psychosurgery involves
A. passing an electric current through the entire brain.
B. injecting lithium directly into the limbic system.
C. removing or destroying brain tissue.
D. all of these procedures.
C. removing or destroying brain tissue.

Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
A. symptoms.
B. dissociation.
C. temperaments.
D. resiliency.
D. resiliency.

A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist’s interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
A. biological
B. social-cognitive
C. humanistic
D. psychoanalytic
B. social-cognitive

Sluggishness, tremors, and twitches similar to those of Parkinson’s disease are most likely to be associated with the excessive use of certain ________ drugs.
A. antipsychotic
B. antidepressant
C. antianxiety
D. mood-stabilizing
A. antipsychotic

Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________.
A. delusion; phobia
B. obsession; compulsion
C. anxiety; dissociation
D. depression; mania
B. obsession; compulsion

A famous 12-step program is associated with
A. EMDR.
B. AA.
C. ECT.
D. rTMS.
B. AA.

Light exposure therapy sparks activity in a brain region that influences
A. tardive dyskinesia.
B. transference.
C. the body’s arousal.
D. animal magnetism.
C. the body’s arousal.

Women are at greater risk of depression than men partially because women are more likely to ________ in response to stressful circumstances.
A. externalize blame
B. suffer memory loss
C. become socially withdrawn
D. overthink
D. overthink

Psychodynamic therapy has been found to be especially successful in the treatment of
A. post-traumatic stress disorder.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. depression.
D. sexual disorders.
C. depression.

Most combat-stressed veterans do not later exhibit post-traumatic stress disorder. This best illustrates
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. resistance.
C. transference.
D. resilience.
D. resilience.

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate
A. ADHD.
B. dissociative disorders.
C. depression.
D. schizophrenia.
C. depression.

The least used biomedical intervention for changing behavior is
A. electroconvulsive therapy.
B. psychosurgery.
C. drug therapy.
D. aversive conditioning.
B. psychosurgery.

Systematic desensitization involves
A. depriving a client access to an addictive drug.
B. associating unwanted behaviors with unpleasant experiences.
C. associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.
D. replacing a positive response to a harmful stimulus with a negative response.
C. associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her, so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer, working at home. Sadie’s behavior is most characteristic of
A. agoraphobia.
B. generalized anxiety disorder.
C. post-traumatic stress disorder.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A. agoraphobia.

When Molly told her therapist about her frightening car accident, the therapist instructed her to close her eyes and verbalize any further thoughts stimulated by this experience, even if they were scary or embarrassing. The therapist was making use of a technique known as
A. systematic desensitization.
B. active listening.
C. transference.
D. free association.
D. free association.

Lithium reduces bipolar patients’ vulnerability to future
A. obesity.
B. dementia.
C. tardive dyskinesia.
D. transference.
B. dementia.

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
A. the psychoanalytic perspective.
B. linkage analysis.
C. self-fulfilling prophecies.
D. the medical model.
C. self-fulfilling prophecies.

Brain scans of PTSD patients suffering memory flashbacks reveal an aberrant and persistent activation of the
A. left occipital lobe.
B. right occipital lobe.
C. right temporal lobe.
D. left temporal lobe.
C. right temporal lobe.

Adelle’s feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
A. electroconvulsive therapy
B. systematic desensitization
C. cognitive therapy
D. drug therapy
A. electroconvulsive therapy

Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult’s psychological disorder by exploring that person’s childhood experiences?
A. a behavior therapist
B. a cognitive therapist
C. a psychoanalyst
D. a humanistic therapist
C. a psychoanalyst

To help Mr. Eberstadt overcome his addiction to alcohol, his therapist first attempted to discover whether the substance dependence was somehow a reaction to his wife’s behavior. The therapist’s concern is most likely to be characteristic of a
A. psychoanalyst.
B. biomedical therapist.
C. client-centered therapist.
D. family therapist.
D. family therapist.

Which of the following is a type of exposure therapy?
A. Topic: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
B. systematic desensitization
C. family therapy
D. stress inoculation training
B. systematic desensitization

Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety-producing situations is most indicative of certain
A. obsessions.
B. delusions.
C. hallucinations.
D. phobias.
D. phobias.

One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions
A. are more clearly associated with mania than with depression.
B. do not coincide with actual episodes of depression.
C. are more characteristic of men than of women.
D. may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.
D. may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.

Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is
A. free-floating.
B. catatonic.
C. cyclical.
D. completely outside of conscious awareness.
A. free-floating.

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates
A. linkage analysis.
B. a biopsychosocial approach.
C. the medical model.
D. the learning perspective.
B. a biopsychosocial approach.

Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for
A. post-traumatic stress disorder.
B. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
C. non-suicidal self-injury.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. non-suicidal self-injury.

Which form of therapy most directly encourages clients to question their interpretations, decatastrophize their thinking, and reattribute responsibility for past outcomes?
A. humanistic therapy
B. behavior therapy
C. psychodynamic therapy
D. cognitive therapy
D. cognitive therapy

Systematic desensitization is to classical conditioning as ________ is to operant conditioning.
A. psychosurgery
B. a token economy
C. aversive conditioning
D. EMDR
B. a token economy

Meta-analysis refers to
A. the technique of simply rephrasing much of what a client says during the course of therapy.
B. counseling and treatment of troubled individuals by friends, family, and other nonprofessionals.
C. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.
D. the use of a variety of therapeutic techniques in the treatment of a single client.
C. a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies.

Mr. Choi’s therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of love and hate for his parents. The therapist’s goal best reflects a primary aim of
A. systematic desensitization.
B. client-centered therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.
D. cognitive therapy.
C. psychoanalysis.

Hans Eysenck launched a spirited debate regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy because he found that it appeared to be
A. too expensive and time-consuming.
B. less beneficial than drug therapy.
C. helpful only for those with relatively mild disorders.
D. no more beneficial than no treatment at all.
D. no more beneficial than no treatment at all.

Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?
A. humanistic
B. social-cognitive
C. biological
D. psychoanalytic
B. social-cognitive

Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on compulsive behaviors.
A. dissociation
B. observational learning
C. stimulus generalization
D. reinforcement
D. reinforcement

The highest rates of depression occur in ________ countries among ________.
A. undeveloped; young adults
B. developed; young adults
C. developed; children
D. underdeveloped; children
B. developed; young adults

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
A. feelings of personal worthlessness.
B. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.
C. delusions of persecution.
D. a persistent irrational fear of other people.
A. feelings of personal worthlessness.

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
A. the DSM-IV-TR.
B. social circumstances and psychological factors.
C. biological evolution.
D. genetically influenced abnormalities.
B. social circumstances and psychological factors.

Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.
A. lower; lower
B. higher; lower
C. higher; higher
D. lower; higher
C. higher; higher

People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
A. social rejection.
B. unrealistic optimism.
C. reduced self-awareness.
D. excessive levels of norepinephrine.
A. social rejection.

Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from Prozac?
A. Jack, who has lost his sense of identity and wandered from his home to a distant city
B. Andrea, who hears imaginary voices telling her that she will suffer a fatal accident
C. Tami, who is so addicted to cigarettes that she doesn’t want to quit smoking
D. Shannon, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks her life is meaningless and worthless
D. Shannon, who feels helpless and apathetic and thinks her life is meaningless and worthless

Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
A. cognitive therapy
B. light exposure therapy
C. systematic desensitization
D. client-centered therapy
A. cognitive therapy

In treating alcohol dependence, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
A. aversive conditioning.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. transference.
D. operant conditioning.
A. aversive conditioning.

Cognitive Psychology 2…Chapter 5

H.M. why did he have surgery?
Henry Gustav Molaison….damaged his hippocampus in both hemispheres….had many seizures…

Was H.M.’s surgery successful?
Yes and no…he lived until 2008…but couldn’t put things in his long term memoir.

Which part of H.M’s brain was removed?
Hippocampus in both hemispheres.

How was H.M’s memory affected?
He couldn’t store things in long term memory and had amnesia for past events.

What could H. M. learn?
Working memory was bueno:
-5-9 digits could be stored
-habituation
-skills
-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning

What couldn’t he learn?
-general knowledge
-life memories
-skills
-predispositions
-reflex learning

What is consolidation?
the process of putting new information into permanent storage.

What does H.M.’s case suggest about memory?
Difference between long term and short term memory.

Episodic Memory:
memories of events that happen to a person

Semantic Memory:
organized knowledge about the world (knowing presidents, tv shows, etc.)

Procedural Memory:
Knowledge about how to do something (riding a bike or knitting)

Why make distinctions between LTM?
There are different types of memories that have different characteristics, and different brain injuries affect different memories.

Encoding:
getting information into storage

Storage:
Holding information

Retrieval:
Geting information out of storage

Depth of Processing?
Deep meaningful information processing leads to more permanent retention than shallow sensory processing.

Shallow quality of a word example?
visual appearance or sound of the word.

Deep quality of a word?
the meaning of the word

What is the classic test of depth of processing
Ask subjects yes/no questions about words
Force shallow or deep processing
Flash the word on a screen, then (not
told ahead of time that they would be
tested)
Results:
Remembered the fill in sentence words
better than the physical characteristic
words

Why memory is better for deep words:
(1) Distinctiveness
(2) Elaboration

Distinctiveness:
a stimulus is different than other memories

Elaborative Rehearsal :
processing new information by associating it with other concepts in permanent memory.

–> most efficient with getting info into LTM

• Maintenance Rehearsal:
repeating a stimulus
–>Less likely to be stored permanently
than with elaborative rehearsal
–>Synesthesia- certain senses associated
with stimulus (colors with words → use
test-retest)

How was depth of processing tested with pictures of faces?
–>Subjects shown many photos of
subjects and asked to make judgments
about either the width of the nose, or
honestly of the person
–>Later asked to identify which of the
faces they were shown

Results of pictures of faces?
Correctly recognized more faces judged for honesty because of distinctiveness (width of nose isn’t distinctively different)

Self- Reference Effect:
Enhancement of long-term memory by relating material to personal experiences.

Explanation of Self- Reference Effect:
1) The self has a rich set of cues that allows
for elaboration and distinctiveness.
–> We have a complex network about
ourselves.
2)Instructions encourage people to see how
their traits are related to one another.
–>More cues are easier to retrieve
3) We may rehearse material more if it is
related to us
–> Elaborative rehearsal.

Encoding Specificity Principle:
Recall is better if the retrieval contexts is similar to the encoding context.

Context:
Context usually has a bigger effect on recall than on recognition.

Recall:
reproduction of items that had been learned earlier
• Few memory cues
• Ex: Fill in blank tests, essay questions,
knowing someone’s name

Recognition:
Identification of items that had been presented at an earlier time
• More memory cues to go off of and
spark your memory…identify the right
answer
• Ex: Multiple choice, recognizing a face
Real life is often recall in
context

For Context to have affect?
1) type of task matters
2)other learning cues should be weak
3)bigger effect on older memories

Why do context effect exist?
It lets us easily recall information for a given situation we are in right meow!….if you’re in a certain situation you easily can recall some information you need to take action at the present time.
• Efficient
• Allows for survival

Emotion
reaction to a specific stimulus

Pollyanna Principle:
pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items.

Mood Congruence:
Memory is better when the material to be learned is similar to the persons current mood
• It’s an encoding phenomena
Good mood: easy to learn nice items
Bad mood: easier to learn nasty items

Mood-Dependent Memory
people are more likely to remember material if their mood at the time of retrieval matches the mood they were in when they originally learned the material.

Final, Forensic Psychology Paper Essay Sample

Final, Forensic Psychology Paper Essay Sample

Currently working in an Arizona State Mental Health Facility as a Forensic Psychologist, I have been recently given the task, court ordered by the judge to evaluate a patient’s competency to stand trial. His name is Edward Wilson. He is a 25 year old male with a history of mental illness, stemming from the age of seventeen. According to the police report found in Edwards file, on Feb 4, 2012 Edward was arrested and charged with killing both his parents. Edward has been at the facility for three months now and his previous records indicate that he possesses a low IQ as well as being mildly mentally challenged. Records state Edward has been hospitalized before due to a self inflicted gunshot to his mouth. He was diagnosed at the age of 19 with paranoid schizophrenia and placed on psychotropic medications after he had an unexpected outburst and physically as well as verbally attacked his younger sister without provocation.

The medication seemed to stabilize his condition and mental status at the time. Since Edward has been at the facility he has stated that he believed several conspiracy theories in reference to his parents as well as the Mayor. He also states that as a teen he came across “the rock of creation” as he referred it, which possessed five different animal faces upon it, and thusly sent it to the Mayor. He also stated that he was not taking any of his psychotropic medications at the time of his parents’ murder. Edward does have a public defender who counseled with his for ten minutes at which time the public defender asked the judge to request a competency evaluation. Thusly, bringing Edward to this facility for competency restoration, evaluation, and into my care. I will evaluate this individual, assess his mental stability and inform the judge of my findings.

Defining Competency
Competency to Stand Trial requires that a defendant comprehends the nature and reason of the legal proceedings against him and be able to effectively and appropriately cooperate with the counsel in his defense. He must be able to comprehend the proceedings, as well as understand the charges against him and the penalties if found guilty. He must also have some level of comprehension of courtroom procedure and the functions of those who participate in it. Also, he must be able to cooperate with counsel, he must be able to competently discus a legal strategy with his counsel, be able to recall and relate pertinent facts and events, that actually occurred, including his motives and actions at the time of the offense, and be able to testify in his behalf and to challenge prosecution witnesses.

The case of Dusky v. United States (1960) developed the foundation of, that in order to be able to be competent to stand trial a defendant has to possess adequate coherent ability to consult with his attorney within an acceptable degree of rational comprehension as well as a rational factual understanding of the proceedings before him and charges against him. This case set the current groundwork for adjudicative competence in the United States and now is the standard used in Federal Court. The statutes addressing competency vary from state to state; however, the aspects defined in the Dusky v. United States decision are contained the infallible fact that the defendant must truly comprehend the charges against him and must have the mental capacity to assist his attorney in defending himself.

Edward Wilson
Given the amount of information in pertaining to Edward I would need to delve deeper into Edwards past, his up bringing and childhood as well as early teen life to gain a better perspective upon his background and if his mental issues began at an earlier age. I would need his past medical records, all medication records as well as mental records, including his stints at all mental and other hospital facilities. I would also need to check all his lab work, blood tests, x-rays, CT’s or MRI’s he had done for any abnormalities. I would need to know if there is a history of mental illness within the family as well. Also, I would need to know how his social life was as a child and early teen. Did he possess the normal social skills and characteristics to develop adequate childhood relationships or was he socially inept, kept to himself and wouldn’t involve himself in normal childhood activities? Did he possess violent tendencies as a child and or teen? Does Edwards have a criminal background? How was his relationship with his parents and with his sister? Was the relationship with his mother abnormal? Was he abused or shunned by his parents? How, was his relationship with his sister before he violently attacked her?

Was he homeschooled, or did he attend a public or private school? Since his records state he has a low IQ and possess a mild form of retardation, at what age was this diagnosed and did he receive proper treatments as well as the education for this issue? At what age did he truly begin to show signs of mental retardation as well as mental instabilities? Did he, as a child and or early teen, repeatedly draw any graphic, horrific, disturbing drawings? Did Edward have any friends, did he engage in sports or after school extracurricular activities? Did he have any pets? If so did he care for them properly or harm them? Was his self inflicted gunshot wound intentional, was he attempting to commit suicide? There are a plethora of people I would need to interview to discus Edwards upbringing and background. First off, I would truly need to speak with his sister. Ask her to recall what she can about his childhood, his personality as a child and a young teen. How was her relationship with him then? Also as her to recall and state in great detail the events that lead up to him verbally and physically attacking her, and recall if he has done this before.

I would also need to interview other family members if there are any, close family friends, neighbors as well as Edwards teachers and all his doctors and or caregivers. I would talk to the people who found Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, talked to Edward and eventually called the police. I would need to gather pertinent pieces of information from each to begin to ascertain and build my evaluation study upon Edward. This information could develop to show an ongoing history of mental illness thus uncovering a possible undiagnosed mental illness at an earlier age. Evaluating Edward and asking him the proper question at to ascertain the validity of his mental status could prove difficult. Especially if he is mentally incapable of comprehending the questions rendered and directed towards him. But I believe the questions I would ask would be, first off the basic sentient set of questions as in, “Do you know the date, do you know what time of year it is, do you know what year it is, who the president is, what own his name and date of birth is, where he is and does he understand why he is there?” Depending upon Edward’s answers the groundwork for the next questions would be set.

I would have to then ask him does he know what happened to his parents and where are they? The questions asked would all depend on Edwards mental capabilities. His records indicated that he has a diminished mental faculty, a mild retardation. Edward is going to feel comfortable answering questions he is able to understand, to be sure. I would have to ascertain if Edward completely understood what has happened, why he is there in the mental facility and explain the court proceedings to him and ask if he understands them. I would have to assess whether Edward comprehended the entire conception pertaining to “being able to be mentally sound to stand trial” and ask him the specifics of the aforementioned definition thereof. I may also ask Edward about his past, if he remembers his childhood and how it was. Also about his relationship with his parents and sister, as well as possible friends he had, pets he was responsible for and how he felt about them all.

I would have to gain a background upon Edward, but through his eyes, perceive the world as he does per se. Besides determining his mental status through the interview process, another way to assess Edward’s competence would be to observe his verbalizations, responses to questions and or others actions. Watch his body language, facial expressions and impulsive behaviors. Observe how he interacts with others, or if he does at all. Maybe observe him in a group therapy session to see if he cooperates, involves himself and understands the structures of the group therapy. Read through all his charts from past to present and as I aforementioned inquire with other medical professionals and staff members about Edward. I would want to gather every piece of collective information about Edward as possible before I made my clinical decision about his mental competency to stand trial. There are also, just to mention a few, The Competency to Stand Trial Screening Test (CST) and The Competency to Stand Trial Assessment Instrument (CAI).

These instruments specifically designed for assessing adjudicative competence was developed in 1965 and was thusly called The Robey’s Checklist for Psychiatrists after noted psychiatrist Ames Robey. According to the previous statements pertaining to Edwards’s behaviors at the time of the crime as well as his mental state, there is a vast difference between being “fit to stand trial” and being criminally responsible. Edward was not taking his prescribed psychotropic medications at the time of the murders, hence was he mentally stable then? He may comprehend the court proceedings now that he has been back on his medications within the mental facility, but not pertaining to when the incident occurred. The judge may request or inquire if Edward’s actions can be distinguished between the aspects regarding fitness for trial, thusly referring to Edward’s present mental capabilities and status during adjudication and criminal responsibility, which of course refers to an Edward’s mental state when the murders occurred. I do not think by the conclusions of the aforementioned information gathered and Edward’s previous actions as well as statements he is mentally fit to stand trial.

But if the judge does indeed deem him fit to stand trial, the ruling that he is competent to stand trial cannot not prevent him and or his attorney from trying to establish an insanity defense and such a finding is not admissible at trial. He would definitely have to proceed as any other person charged with a double homicide. He would have to go through each and every step as a normal person would as well as all the court proceedings. Then the jury will have to decide if indeed Edward was sane and or mentally stable at the time of the murders and either charge him thusly or not. I am not sure a jury would find in Edward’s favor, even though he possess a diminished mental faculty doesn’t mean he didn’t purposely stop taking his prescribed medication, which, as stated, stabilized his paranoid schizophrenic symptoms, and that he didn’t know between right from wrong.

I think all in all, Edward could be found guilty, but placed within a prison mental facility to serve his sentence. The theory that can best describe Edward’s behaviors, I believe is The Psychological Theories. I view Edward as very socially inept, thus he didn’t interact very much with others than his own family. Did Edward possess an abnormal relationship with his mother, within his own perceptions? Psychological Theories can pinpoint and make reference to most of Edward’s anti-social behaviors as well as his diagnosed paranoid schizophrenia. All Edward’s symptoms, diagnosis, behaviors and criminal causations all have reference to psychological theories. Psychological based criminal theories explain criminal behavior as the consequence of individual factors, such as negative early childhood experiences, and inadequate socialization, which results in criminal thinking patterns and or incomplete cognitive development. This clearly describes Edward’s behaviors and mental instabilities.

Conclusion
If I was inquired by the determining judge to stand and give my professional assessment of Edward Wilson’s future emotional and mental stability and if he is a threat to himself and or society, I would have in state, “yes”. I believe Edward could very easily pose as a threat, especially if he is not under the constant supervision of a doctor to make sure he is taking his proper prescribed medications. Another episode of someone losing their lives, let alone Edward possibly committing suicide, just isn’t worth the risk of a “we’ll see” type of situation with Edward. His hallucinations and grandiose ideals of conspiracy pose as a threat to himself as well as society. Edward clearly has a chemical imbalance and requires psychotropic medications to possibly curb those paranoid schizophrenic symptoms and behaviors as well as be under the constant care of several doctors.

Reference:

Greene, E., Heilbrun, (2010). Psychology and the legal system (7th ed.). Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

COMPETENCE AND INSANITY
http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/COMPETENCE%20AND%20INSANITY.pdf

Competent to Stand Trial

Mental Competency – United States Supreme Court Cases

http://www.mentalcompetency.org/resources/court-cases/supreme-court.html

Evaluating Competency to Stand Trial with Evidence-Based Practice

http://www.jaapl.org/content/37/4/450.full

AAPL Practice Guideline for the Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial

http://www.jaapl.org/content/35/Supplement_4/S3.full#sec-61

Psychological Explanations Of Deviant Behavior

http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Psychological-Explanations-Of-Deviant-Behavior.htm