Role of Nutrition & Health in the Elderly

Role of Nutrition & Health in the Elderly

As the population of elderly people rises, and the costs associated with medical care rise, the role nutrition plays in remaining healthy as a person ages is being shown to be more important than was earlier thought. Many factors contribute to the level of nutrition a person receives. Elderly people are often sedentary, home-bound, chronically ill, taking medications. These and other elements in their lifestyle affect the way their bodies utilize and metabolize their food. These and other factors affect how, when, where, and how much they eat. Malnutrition in the form of over or under eating is one of the most pervasive and potentially debilitating problems experienced by the elderly of the United States (Murphy, Everett, & Dresser, 1992, p. 184). Caloric intake in the United States tends to decrease with age. The risk of the elderly consuming too few nutrients in their diet is real.

The diets of the elderly vary across the spectrum from good to bad. Some generalizations are possible. In large group studies, it has been shown that the consumption of several nutrients is below the recommended levels. Calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6 were among the first nutrients in which deficiencies were discovered in the elderly population (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185). Further studies of longer terms have included zinc and copper in the category of nutrients of which the elderly do not consume enough (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185).

Debilitating disease in the form of cancer, heart disease and arthritis have all been shown to be affected by diet. The American Heart Association continues to offer dietary guidance aimed at reducing total fat intake (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185). Fat intake is implicated in a number of debilitating diseases. High blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and cancer all have been linked to high levels of lipids in the blood system. Excess fat intake is al…

Role of Nutrition & Health in the Elderly

Role of Nutrition & Health in the Elderly


As the population of elderly people rises, and the costs associated with medical care rise, the role nutrition plays in remaining healthy as a person ages is being shown to be more important than was earlier thought. Many factors contribute to the level of nutrition a person receives. Elderly people are often sedentary, home-bound, chronically ill, taking medications. These and other elements in their lifestyle affect the way their bodies utilize and metabolize their food. These and other factors affect how, when, where, and how much they eat. Malnutrition in the form of over or under eating is one of the most pervasive and potentially debilitating problems experienced by the elderly of the United States (Murphy, Everett, & Dresser, 1992, p. 184). Caloric intake in the United States tends to decrease with age. The risk of the elderly consuming too few nutrients in their diet is real.

The diets of the elderly vary across the spectrum from good to bad. Some generalizations are possible. In large group studies, it has been shown that the consumption of several nutrients is below the recommended levels. Calcium, magnesium, and vitamin B6 were among the first nutrients in which deficiencies were discovered in the elderly population (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185). Further studies of longer terms have included zinc and copper in the category of nutrients of which the elderly do not consume enough (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185).

Debilitating disease in the form of cancer, heart disease and arthritis have all been shown to be affected by diet. The American Heart Association continues to offer dietary guidance aimed at reducing total fat intake (Murphy, Everett & Dresser, 1992, p. 185). Fat intake is implicated in a number of debilitating diseases. High blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and cancer all have been linked to high levels of lipids in the blood system. Excess fat intake is al…


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Nutrition and Health

Nutrition and Health

This research assesses the quantitative analyses included in four journal articles dealing with the health of human beings, wherein nutrition is one facet of the functional health of older persons. Each article is assessed separately, and no comparison is made between articles.

High levels of cholesterol are widely held to be significant in the development of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death of black persons in the United States (Wiist and Flack, 1990). High levels of cholesterol are widely thought to be a function, in part, of individual diet and nutrition (Wiist and Flack, 1990). One valuable intervention in efforts to control cholesterol levels, and, in turn, the incidence of coronary heart disease, is widely held to be education in diet and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to test the implied hypothesis that education in diet and nutrition would lead to a lowering of cholesterol levels (Wiist and Flack, 1990). Thus, the dependent variable in the research was the serum cholesterol level, while the independent variable was participation or nonparticipation in a diet and nutrition education program. The effects of two other variablessex and formal education levelwhich might intervene in the relationship between cholesterol levels and participation or nonparticipation in an education program were also measured.

Cholesterol screening (using a Reflotron) and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six neighborhood churches with predominantly black memberships, and at a community library located in the same neighborhood. Through this screening, 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter or high were identified. Onehalf of these 348 individuals were invited to attend a nutrition education class for onehour per week for a period of six weeks. In addition to the information provided in the class, pri…

nutrition

Nutrition is the science that deals with food and how the body uses

it. All living things need food to live. The food supplies energy, which

people need to perform certain actions. Food also provides substances

that the body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate its

Food provides certain chemical substances needed in order for a

person to maintain good health. These chemical substances are called

nutrients. Nutrients can perform three important functions. They provide

materials for building, repairing, or maintaining body tissues. They help

regulate body processes. They serve as fuel to provide energy. The

body needs energy to maintain all its functions. People who do not get

enough nutrients are sometimes lazy and are unwilling to work.

The foods we eat contain thousands of different chemicals. Our

body, however, only needs only a few dozen of these chemicals in order

to stay healthy. These are the nutrients that the body needs. Nutrients

are divided into six main groups. They are (1)water, (2)carbohydrates,

(3)fats, (4)proteins, (5)minerals, (6)vitamins. Water, carbohydrates, fats,

and proteins are called macronutrients. Since macro means large, the

body needs these four nutrients in large amounts. Minerals and vitamins

are called micronutrients (because micro means small). The body needs

only small amounts of these nutrients.

Water is the most important nutrient. Our bodies can survive

without other nutrients for several weeks, but we can only go without

water for about one week. Water is needed in great amounts because

the body consists largely of water. Between 50 and 75 percent of a

normal person’s body weight is made up of water. The body needs water

to carry out all of its life processes. Watery solutions help dissolve other

nutrients and carry them to all of the tissues. The body also needs water

to carry away waste products and to cool itself. Adults should drink

about 2 1/2 quarts of water every day.

The carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are needed because they have

Carbohydrates include all sugars and starches. They are the main

source of energy for living things. There are two types of carbohydrates,

simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include sugars and have a

simple molecular structure. Complex carbohydrates include starches and

have a larger and more complicated molecular structure. The structure

consists of many simple carbohydrates linked together.

Fats are a highly concentrated source of energy. All fats are

composed of an alcohol called glycerol and substances called fatty acids.

A fatty acid consists of a long chain of carbon atoms. There are three

types of fatty acids. They are saturated, monounsaturated, and

polysaturated. This is a chart that describes the amount of fat per

serving. The bold words can be found on many food products in the

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Personal Nutrition and Exercise Plan essay

Ischemic Heart disease, Coronary Heart Disease and Coronary Artery Disease are all examples of Heart Diseases caused by atherosclerosis, which comes about as a result of deposits of fats in the coronary arteries. The coronary arteries function as suppliers of blood to the heart. Artheroma or build-u of plaque decreases the amount of blood flowing into the heart leading to such signs as chest pains, stroke or heart attacks, depending on the severity and the location of the blockage (Bianco, 2008). I am a person aged 25 years old and my family has been known to have a history for developing heart diseases and as a woman I am more susceptible to the coronary artery disease. This puts me at a high risk of having the disease develop in my lifetime.

The main objective of this paper is to come up with a practical personal nutrition and exercise plan that can be instigated within the next thirty days and sustained throughout he rest of my life as an attempt to maintain a normal blood pressure and reduce the chances of developing the heart disease in my life time. It is important to understand that undergoing such a plan does not mean that I will not be taking any medication if the condition manifests later in life but this means that this particular plan will significantly reduce the chances of developing he condition later in life. Several possible risks may occur if I do not stick to this plan therefore the development of this plan is very important. These risks vary from kidney diseases and vision problems to stroke and ultimately the development of the coronary heart disease (The American Heart Association, 2003). The development of this plan develops from the fact that I can several changes in my dietary habits as well as my physical fitness activities to prevent the possibility contracting coronary heart disease in future.

The goals to help me avoid theheart disease are divided into two categories: nutritional goals and exercise goals. The nutritional goals including eating doses of all food groups with a caloric intake of 1500 every day and loss of a few ponds.  The exercise goals include making sure that I sustain a 5 day per week exercise plan that will help me increase my strength and physique. These two goals will enhance reduced concentration of cholesterol in the blood and will assist in reducing the blood pressure that assist in reducing the susceptibility to coronary heart disease.

The nutritional plan will involve taking foods in all doses according to the recommended daily intakes including: 65 g of fat, 20 g of saturated fatty acids, 300 mg of cholesterol, 300 mg, of sodium, 4700 mg of potassium, a total of 300 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of fiber and 50 g of proteins. This will be achieved by taking five portions of whole grain, five portions of fruits and vegetables that are all none-fat or none-sugar, 15 cups of water, 200 mg of fresh juice or milk, two portions of lean meat and two or three portions of fish or chicken. All these foods are to be taken on a daily basis. Eating during breakfast will involve taking a weighty balanced meal complemented with a snack of whole grain and fruit salad for the tea break snack. Lunch should be taken in doses of balanced diet meals with a balanced light meal diet for dinner. The fibers taken will be soluble fibers which help reduce Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) levels in the blood or reduce greatly on the bad cholesterol. These soluble fibers will be taken in portions of five to ten grams on a daily basis and this is expected to reduce cholesterol by 5%. This can be found easily in one plate of oatmeal that contains approximately three grams of soluble fiber (Tsang, 2006) and can be taken as a simple breakfast. Other foods rich in soluble fibers and are easy to obtain include apples, pears, kidney beans and barley. Another good food to include in my diet to keep low levels of cholesterol is fish. Fish contains omega-3 fatty acids that are known to lower the LDLs and raise the High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). Such fish include tout, salmon and Mahi that are easily available and slightly cheap. I love them and they will help reduce my levels of blood cholesterol.

The exercise plan involves a five day a week exercise plan that 5-6 am jogging for each of the first five days of the week that is coupled with running, athletics, weightlifting, sit-ups, volley ball and bike riding. The rest of the two days of the exercise per week involve 9-10 am jogging, weight lifting and sit-ups. This will help me to be a sportive and athletic individual with an increased awareness about my fitness and wellness. This will help me to lose weight and gain an acceptable BMI (Body Mass Index) that will not put me at risks of developing coronary heart diseases. To help me stick to this nutritional and exercise plan, I will be tracing the diet and the workouts by keeping a diary and joining events such as exercising with a partner (Yap, & Davis, 2008). The daily schedule of the exercise plans will be carefully planned out with the specific type of exercises that are to be done that particular day, where and how long they are to be done.

This personal nutrition and exercise plan will be checked by consulting a physician to make sure that it is practical at such a youthful age and taking into consideration other health factors. However, this plan might be limited by my kind of work since it involves a lot of travel and will affect my exercise plan severely. School is also an anticipated limitation to this plan as far as healthy eating is concerned since at school I eat conveniently because of the kind of food I can access. However, with all the efforts put towards adhering to this plan, I am confident that I will succeed with this plan.

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Nutrition essay

Nutrition is a process of acquiring the right category of food to ensure good health and growth. Nutrition is essential for growth and fitness of health because without good nutrition, one may develop a weak immune system. This may endanger one’s life because the immune system will not fight effectively against attacks of bacteria and fungi when it is weak. Nutrition defines an investigation of the choice of diets that people prefer and explores the possibility of common diseases that come because of poor nutrition. Poor nutrition is subsequently associated with reduced fertility and the occurrence of malnutrition in the health of humans. In some countries, such as America, poor nutrition is a choice individuals make in their preference to take foods rich in carbohydrates and fats. This is because fast foods are easily accessible and affordable. In other countries, such as Haiti and other parts of Africa, poor nutrition is because of the poverty level or poor economic status, while in still other counties it is because of cultural practices and religious beliefs. A good nutrition consists of foods rich in carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, iron, and roughage (Nies & McEwen, 2011).

Community, Demographic, and Epidemiological Data

Gonaives is a small community based in the North Coast part of Haiti. It has plain land that is not entirely fertile for productive farming and contains a small percentage of the country’s population. In the early centuries, most people preferred to live in Gonaives because of the coast access until natural disasters such as hurricanes destroyed the people’s way of living, homes, hospitals, and schools. This incident left many people dead and homeless, reducing its population by 60%. Through the constant disasters and other factors such as political violence, many people continued to lose their lives and livelihood until there was no hope for the community (Curnutte, 2011).

Eventually, the census reports also reduced to a small population who survived and were left homeless. In addition to this, poverty and hunger caused many deaths, which also changed the census reports. Despite the traumatizing experiences, these people still hope for improvement in their community. According to census reports, the population numbers go up before disasters and during census, but rapidly reduce after disasters strike. This means that hurricanes and earthquakes are major causes of the reduced population not just in the community of Gonaives but in the entire country of Haiti. In comparison to the statistic and city reports, Haiti is defined as a poor country that requires help and support of other foreign countries not just to survive but also to invest in ways that could boost their economic system (Curnutte, 2011).

National report does not state the conditions of the small communities that appear abandoned, such that when other highly populated communities receive relief food, small communities only access the food last when there is not sufficient food for everyone. For this reason, many people decide to find other means of survival, which is extreme, because the only available food for them is mud. Several women prepare and sell mud cookies to feed their children. This means that children can only access poor nutritional systems to stay alive. This way, families do not have to rely on relief food for survival. National data also state that small-scale farmers tried farming but, because of poverty and lack of resources, they are not able to achieve much in their tireless efforts (Curnutte, 2011).

Windshield Survey

According to several surveys, people of Gonaives community work hard during the day to collect mud and farm. Others prepare the mud cookies so that they can sell them in the afternoon to feed their children. It is not a profitable business since every mother is doing it to save her family from hunger. This means that whenever farmers plant and harvest successfully, people will only access one kind of food that they harvest and, once they finish it, they go back to making mud cookies. Mud cookies are not nutritious and so they cause children to be malnourished. Such children develop health problems such as kwashiorkor that do not allow them to live normal lives. Family houses were constructed of mats and sticks. Available schools were poorly structured using mud and mats (Curnutte, 2011).

Shaded trees also acted as classrooms before the construction of simple buildings after disasters. Even though there were a few schools, most children did not show up to school because they helped their parents prepare and sell mud cookies. Gonaives community only had one health care provider and few churches that professed their religion. Due to limited resources in the health care sector, reports of death increase every year, especially of children and expectant women. When other countries bring relief food, they distribute it in churches or schools. Most buildings are small structures made on much squeezed land to allow for farming space. However, many farmers try in-house farming in their small homes, which limits them because of the small space and insufficient facilities and funds. The major activity during weekdays and weekends is looking for food, but on most weekends people attend church (Curnutte, 2011).

Problem

The major problem in Haiti and Gonaives community is poverty and disasters, which caused poor nutrition or no nutrition at all. With the idea of in-house farming, people can produce theirr own food and not rely on outsiders for help. The government needs to offer its support to every community, whether big or small. In addition to this, since small-scale farmers cannot succeed because of earthquakes and hurricanes that keep destroying their plants, with properly structured houses, farmers will be able to practice their skills in a more productive environment. This way, many other people can get employment opportunities and be able to sustain their families, regardless of how little their income may be (Caroll, 2008).

Historical Significance

The historical significance of these problems is that, since the beginning, there has not been much improvement in the state of the communities and the country. Historically, Haiti has needed urgent intervention to experience change. Currently, the people of Gonaives community rely on relief food that is accessible only occasionally. This means that people have to find other means of survival until relief food reaches them. Due to constant natural disasters, reports of lost lives increased from 20% to 56%, most of whom were children and women not prepared for such incidences. Haitians are desperate for change to survive the many issues they face. On the other hand, the geographical features and economic state of Haiti may also play a key role in the nutrition of the people in that, if the economy is not stable, there is bound to be a lack of enough food supply for every person (Curnutte, 2011).

For this reason, people start eating anything available, which in most cases is not healthy. All these are fundamental factors that contribute to the wellbeing of humans, which affects Haiti in various ways. While a huge percentage of economically stable countries embrace a wider range of foods from different parts of the world, Haiti still suffers from poor nutrition because of constant natural disasters. For this reason, people from communities in Haiti have health risks because they do not get access to a variety of foods that can enable them to have good nutrition.  Poor nutrition also plays a key role in the normal growth and development of children and the society (Curnutte, 2011).

In conclusion, just like other fundamental factors such as economy, history, religion and culture that have massive effects on human lives, nutrition is a crucial element that has both negative and positive effects. Poor nutrition affects the growth and development of children and poses a health risk for adults, especially the elderly people. Haiti and many other poor countries need support from the government to improve people’s livelihood. This way, small communities will also manage their small-scale farms skillfully and sustainably. A big percentage of Haitians are religious meaning they can earnestly pray for change.

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Nutrition During Pregnancy essay

The energy needs are hiked to foster growth and development of the tissues such as placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus, maternal tissues like uterus and breasts, tissue synthesis, and maternal fat deposition. The approximate extra cost of energy during pregnancy is 77, 000 kcal (FAO, WHO &UNU, 2004).

In addition, pregnant women require essential fatty acids which are important in the development of fetal nervous system and the brain. Rich sources include oily fish, but care should be taken with their consumption, since they may contain pollutants such as methyl mercury, which may be detrimental to the developing fetal nervous system (Theobald, 2003).

Moreover, recommended additional protein intake during pregnancy has been estimated at 6 g per day. Protein helps in the growth of maternal tissues and development of conception products. Rich sources include meat, milk and milk products, beans, poultry and fish (FAO, WHO &UNU, 2004).

Furthermore, intake of the carbohydrate diet like sugar, starch and dietary fiber is not necesarily raised. However, women who experience constipation due to reduced peristaltic motion in the gastrointestinal tract will benefit from the consumption of dietary fiber, ranging from 12-24 g per day. Increased intake of fluids will also foster the regularity of bowel movement (Williamson, 2006).

In addition, vitamin A is needed to promote fetal and maternal tissue growth and for fetal storage. However, if taken in large quantities, vitamin A can be teratogenic; women should avoid rich sources of retinol like liver and supplements, unless advised by a practitioner. Other sources are dark green leafy vegetables, and dark yellow and orange fruits. Vitamin C intake needs to be increased for storage and for enhancing iron absorption. Sources are oranges, pineapples and lemons.

Further, iron should be increased for fetal and placental growth and to foster production of more red blood cells. Rich sources include red meats and green leafy vegetables. The recommended dietary intake is an additional 9 mg per day or supplementation (Williamson, 2006).

Another mineral rrequirement is riboflavin, which helps with the release of energy in the body cells. An additional 0.3-1.4 mg per day of riboflavin throughout the pregnancy is recommended. Rich sources of riboflavin include milk and milk product, meat and meat products, cereals and yeast extract.

Moreover, increased intake of folic acid helps to prevent megaloblastic anemia. It is provided through supplementation, intake of folate-fortified foods or dietary intake of dark green leafy vegetables, nuts and legumes.

On the other hand, pregnant women need to avoid unpressurised milk and milk products, raw or undercooked meat, since they may contain Toxoplasma gondiiwhich causes Toxoplasmosis infection that leads to mental retardation and blindness (Thomas, 2001).

Expectant women need to avoid excessive alcohol intake as it can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome, which causes low birth weight, abnormal facial appearance and congenital abnormalities. Such children may be stunted or mentally retarded. It also affects conception viability of the women (Goldberg, 2002; Beattie, 1999).

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Factors That May Contribute To Altered Nutrition in Elderly essay

Introduction

The elderly are a group of people that are susceptible to nutritional problems. There are many factors that contribute to this problem. Some of the factors that may contribute to altered nutrition in elderly include the following; Changes in the gastrointestinal tract, Decreased neuromuscular coordination and personal factors for example fixed income, loneliness and susceptibility to health claims.

Changes in the gastrointestinal tract

Many changes occur in the gastrointestinal tract, including loss of teeth, reduced production of saliva, diminished taste and smell, and increased ability to digest foods. When these changes occur, chewing may become painful, and a diet with soft foods is preferred. Eating pleasure declines when taste and smell are impaired. Some adults prefer strongly flavored foods, while others avoid food because it does not taste good anymore (Berman Et al. 2007).

Decreased neuromuscular coordination

Neuromuscular coordination decreases with age plus conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis may hamper food planning and the use of feeding on utensils. Muscles inside the lower gastrointestinal tract become weakened with advancing age in addition to constipation is a common problem. Many nutrient absorption. Kidney repair and maintenance deteriorates with age, plus renal function is impaired in some individuals. Fluid and electrolyte balance is usually difficult to maintain, specially during illness.

Personal Factors

The personal factors to wellness claims are fixed revenue, loneliness and susceptibility. Repaired income makes the older to often exist on a fixed income of which prevents an adequate food. This income deficit influences housing and facilities, constraining cooking frequency and foods storage.   Elderly people may also be lonely wich impacts their eating behaviors to a great extent. Elderly persons living alone drop their desire to prepare or eat. Lonely folks become apathetic, depressed, in addition to fail to eat. Health promises: Many of the elderly purchase foods and supplements from wellness food stores because of ads claiming that the meals have curative power and may even in fact retard the aging process. Older people are mainly emaciated due to progressive loss of weight producing in a low BMI of 16/m3. This requires basic wasting away in the entire body tissue as a result of severe malnourishment.

Roles of typically the RN in assessing risk factor for altered Diet in the health proper care environment

It performs regular assessment associated with nutritional status of the particular patients. This entails the carrying out comprehensive nourishment assessment that involves evaluating clients to determine their own likelihood of developing protein energy malnutrition. It monitor’ h the response to dietary intervention. This really is achieved through periodic nutritional assessments, tracking weight gain and BODY MASS INDEX in response to remedy to ascertain adequate dietary intake, quality of patient’s lifestyle, functional status, and difficulties of nutritional support steps among others.

It administers nursing diagnosis. This include documentation of weight, determining of body fat composition by skin fold measurements, calculation of body mass index as a ratio of height, performing nutritional assessment, exploring the importance and meaning of food with the patient, assessing knowledge regarding nutritional needs and level of activity or other factors, ability to read food labels (Norton, 1984).

Nursing interventions that need to be implemented to overcome the 3 problems identified.

Eating meals alone (social isolation), encourages the patient to eat food in a group as this increases the ability to eat more food since eating is a social activity. Also the food can be served attractively to iincrease his appetite. The nurse intervention on overcoming the problem of anorexia includes: serving the patients with foods at the right temperatures, and with foods that are spiced or herbs added, by offering small servings of food frequently, providing an opportunity for oral hygiene before meals which stimulates salivation increasing patients appetite. They experiences impaired swallowing. The nurse interventions that need to be implemented to overcome the problem of impaired swallowing include: keeping the client in a sitting position or semi-sitting position for at least an half before eating, encouraging the patient to use his tongue or finger to sweep retained food from the cheek and repeat the swallowing.

Planning and teaching that should be initiated for a client who will be discharged

A client who is emaciated the family members or those who are taking care of him are taught by the nurse on several activities to be done to assist in weight gain while discharged. These include: taking a rest after taking a meal, by disguising extra of calories meals by fortifying foods with powdered milk, gravies or sauces, eating of small amounts of food frequently, eating a variety of foods from small amounts and gradually increasing in terms of number of servings or serving sizes.

Those who are obese, prior to their discharge they are advised to use fats, oils and sugar sparingly. Also, to practice eating food in small amounts frequently as compared to large amounts sparingly. The client is also advised to eliminate consumption of junk foods and alcoholic beverages as well as increasing fiber in the diet from fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains (Sharkey Et al. 2002). The client is also advised to participate in regular exercises which help to raise metabolic rates while suppressing appetite. Those suffering from anorexia the family members and care givers are thought on how to serve the patient with foods at the right temperatures, foods that are spiced, offering food in small servings frequently.

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