Health Care Job Analysis essay

Organizational change impacts all aspects of health care delivery. The goal of this paper is to perform a detailed job analysis for the position of Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). The paper includes the description of the organizational change context and the way the LPN position fits into the organization. A detailed description of the job position is provided, including job credentials and physical requirements, etc. A proforma for the position is included.

Keywords: Licensed Practical Nurse, LPN, health care, organization, job.

Health Care Job Analysis

The problem of nursing shortages and the impacts of organizational change on nursing are very popular topics in research literature. According to Anderson (n.d.), licensed practical nursing is well-known for its noble history and a huge contribution made to the development of the entire system of health care. Unfortunately, not all hospitals and health care facilities realize the importance of the LPN position and the quality of caring services LPN can provide. As a result, a detailed strategy of organizational change should be developed to retain the value and motivation of Licensed Practical Nurses to provide high-quality services to patients.


With the rapid modifications in healthcare delivery, Certified Practical Nurses are faced with new professional difficulties. The growing quantity of businesses has come to a new conclusion that LPNs zero longer play a decisive role in health treatment provision and have tried to push them out regarding their functions and careers (Hendren, 2011). Health proper care organizations seek new techniques to engage LPNs in additional training and education and learning. LPNs are encouraged to be able to become RNs (Hendren, 2011). However, not everyone realizes the hidden facets in addition to possible negative consequences associated with moving away from LPNs to RNs. In our organization, an organized shift was made to attract a lot more LPNs. The business has undergone a series of modifications and restructuring to permit more LPNs work inside the healthcare facility. Numerous of them will possess the opportunity to pursue professional quality, obtain training and schooling, and turn into RNs. In typically the meantime, the position in the LPN fits into the organization obviously, as that allows avoiding nursing shortages and, at the same time, ensures smooth in addition to timely delivery of top quality medical care to sufferers.

LPN Job Position Description

Job duties

A Licensed Useful Nurse (also Licensed Professional Nurse or LPN) supply assistance to physicians and registered nurses (RNs) in affected person care. The main job duties of the LPN include: monitoring patients’ health; applying basic nursing care; providing patients with comfort plus understanding; discussing health problems in addition to concerns with patients; credit reporting changes in patients’ status to RNs and medical professionals; and keeping patient well being records (Bureau of Labor Statisics, 2012). The LPN will also have in order to provide personal care in addition to administer medications to individuals, give massages and dress wounds, apply ice bags, compresses, and hot water bottles, observe and record possible adverse reactions in order to treatment, collect samples with regard to examination and administer specific medications, as well mainly because sterilize equipment and even record patients’ food intake (Career Planner, 2011). The relief duties may include supervising and directing other unlicensed or licensed medical staff (BLS, 2012).

Supervision and work atmosphere

Typically the LPN is directly responsible for the Registered Nurse (RN) or physician. The nurse has to spend the majority of of his/her work period on feet and still help lift patients, who have problems moving, standing up, or walking (BLS, 2012). The LPN works complete time on a move basis, which means getting at work with weekends plus holidays, along with days in addition to nights. The regular change is 8 hours, but some LPNs may require to stay longer.

Qualifications, credentials plus licensing

The most common certification include education and permit. In terms of the former, the LPN will be required to have completed at least the simple accredited program of just one year or maybe more (BLS, 2012). High school diploma or perhaps equivalent is required. At least one year of practical knowledge as LPN is a new must. The following will be the ability required to take the position of LPN:

–                Basic familiarity with medication and medical terminology;

–                Consumer service knowledge in addition to skills;

–         Ability to meet schedules and be punctual;

–        Ability to use physical effort in daily practices, basically to lift and carry heavy equipment, materials, and patients;

–         Ability to retrieve, process, and analyze information;

–         Ability to communicate with patients and family members in a respectful, tactful, and professional manner;

–         Ability to keep patients’ information confidential and private;

–         Ability to pursue the quality standards established by the organization.

Additionally, the LPN is required to possess excellent interpersonal and human communication skills. The LPN must exercise compassion and care in his/her dealings with the patient. The LPN must be detail oriented to make sure the patient receives the necessary level of care (BLS, 2012). Patience is the necessary prerequisite for becoming LPN, as the nurse must be able cope with their own and patients’ stress. Of particularr importance is the LPN’s commitment to continuous learning, as patients are becoming sicker and medical care is getting more complex (Hendren, 2011). The LPN must constantly expand his/her knowledge of the profession to ensure that the board finds a role for them within the hospital (Hendren, 2011). Regular training will help avoid practice restrictions that hinder the development of the LPN specialty. The LPN must be licensed.

Career outlook

It is expected that the number of LPNs hired by medical facilities will increase 22 percent by 2020 (BLS, 2012). The growing popularity of the nursing profession is justified by the rapid advancement of the health care system and, at the same time, the growing role of patient-centered care. The LPN has all necessary backgrounds to become a Registered Nurse (RN) by completing the required training course and obtaining the certification needed for this position.


The following is the proforma for the position of LPN. Each Licensed Practical Nurse hired for this position will have to complete this proforma for each patient admitted to acute care.

The proforma is to be completed by each LPN during the shift, for each patient individually and based on objective medical data and physician prescriptions. The proforma is signed by the immediate supervising RN and the physician at the end of the shift.


The current state of medical care requires major professional attention. Under the influence of organizational shifts and restructuring, many LPNs are losing their positions. However, Licensed Practical Nurses have the potential to reduce the nursing shortage and move medical care onto a new level of quality. This is why medical organizations are becoming aware of the benefits of hiring more LPNs to serve patients’ daily needs. LPNs perform a broad range of tasks and engage in a variety of organizational and medical processes, from monitoring changes in patients’ health to dressing and cleaning them. The exact scope of LPN obligations varies considerably across medical facilities. LPNs are required to have the basic training, experience working as a nurse, excellent knowledge of medical terminology and caring attitudes. Perfect interpersonal and human skills are a must. All nurses must be licensed. LPNs face excellent career growth opportunities and can quickly shift to being an RN or nurse supervisors, after additional training courses are completed and new licensed are obtained. Unfortunately, not all medical facilities can successfully define the boundaries of LPN practices; as a result, nurses experience confusion and cannot successfully cope with their workplace obligations. At the same time, Licensed Practical Nurses are required to pursue growth and continuous learning in order to meet the changing demands of patient care in technologically advanced medical institutions and healthcare facilities.

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Health Care Organization essay

Maintenance and improvement of health of citizens is a fundamental priority of the government in the current conditions and is vital for the preservation of society and national security. Reforming of the health care system requires the adaptation of classic approach and search for new methods of adequate health care management on a scientific basis. As we are talking about direct impact on human health, patience safety is particularly important in this case. The ensuring of patience safety is achieved primarily through the use of clinical interventions with maximum efficiency and minimum risk for the patient, which is the basis of evidence-based medical practice.

The report of the U.S. Institute of Medicine, “To err is human: Building a safer health system” (1999) stated that in the U.S. hospitals, medical treatment errors result in death of 44 – 98 thousand people every year. The working group on quality patient care organization “Hospitals for Europe” has reported that in 2000, one in ten European hospitals’ patients suffered from preventable harm or adverse effects of treatment. In 2004, the 57th World Health Assembly considered a proposal for building an international alliance to improve the situation in the field of patient safety as a global initiative.

The resolution of typically the problem of patient safety needs a comprehensive approach that includes an evaluation of almost all vital activities. It is now proved that the quality associated with life of patients features an independent predictive value and does not have more accurate criteria with regard to determining the status regarding the patient during therapy than indicators of general somatic status.

Health care care should be risk-free, effective, timely, qualified, plus patient-centered. Consequently, the wide-spread introduction of measures targeted at improving safety associated with patients is of particular medical and practical interest. Execution of a comprehensive system of treatment for making sure patient safety in clinics can improve clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic and treatment method.

Parameters reflecting the underlying negative indicators of diagnostic and treatment procedure may increase the effectiveness of monitoring the safety o in the hospital patients. Integrated safety criterion allows measuring the stage of patient safety, strategy further improvement of analysis and treatment process to be able to assess overall trends inside patient safety and of its comparative quantitative evaluation in different parts of a multi-hospital setting.

Elimination of any kind of possible defects in corporation of the hospital and work of medical personnel, problems of medical interventions plus complications associated with typically the behavior of the patient and staff can also improve patient safety. Amplification, rise of treatment and diagnostic process when implementing a great integrated approach to patient security in hospital is not really accompanied by a considerable increase in workload for personnel but , on the opposite, increases the number associated with staff which is totally satisfied with their job.

The main factors distracting the safety of patients in hospital include medical interventions, psychological conflicts and dissatisfaction of patients with the quality of medical care. At the heart of preventive measures to ensure the safety of patients are the introduction of evidence of medical practice, industrial technology management with quality of care, and informing and training patients.

Monitoring of patients around the hospital showed that for the evaluation of patient safety, integrated criterion of security can be used founded on the basis of inverse negative indices, ranked in order of their clinical significance: in-hospital mortality, non-fatal adverse outcomes, complications of medical interventions, intra-hospital infections, dissatisfied patients, the presence of psychological conflicts and medical personnel interested in the elimination of organizational defects.

Economic efficiency evaluation consists of saving funds allocated to facility of obligatory medical insurance (savings rate) by reducing the average length of treatment and increase of clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive system to ensure patient safety in the hospital is to reduce the actual average cost of treatment per patient. To achieve some significant reduction in the cost of the diagnostic and treatment process, increase in the frequency of positive outcomes, decrease in the average duration of treatment, and some significant changes are necessary.

Reducing the negative effects of the organization of medical and diagnostic process is accompanied by increased access to quality patient care due to the increase in the number of patients with stable bed turnover, the number of days of bed occupancy in a year, shorter hospital stay, the increasing number of tools and laboratory studies per patient per year (Institute of Medicine, 2012).

Implementation of an integrated system for patient safety leads to the intensification of labor and reduced employee turnover. Increase of the overall satisfaction of medical staff of the quality of diagnostic and treatment process, the number of associates, innovations, personal activity of health workers in the management of quality also increases the proportion of staff trained specialization and improvement of their qualification.

Implementation of a comprehensive system to ensure patient safety in a multidisciplinary hospital reduces the frequency of psychological conflict between the medical staff and the patient or his/her relatives, which helps to reduce cases of unjustified increase in terms of hospital treatment and non-patients on therapeutic and diagnostic procedures (Youngberg & Hatlie, 2004).

During the intensive care treatment, advanced monitoring is needed for ensuring patience safety: monitoring of cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, blood, homeostasis as well as energy, water, electrolyte and acid-base balance. Equally important is the intensive surveillance of the ongoing treatment interventions and their outcomes. The important role plays external and internal monitoring of microbiological status and the use of prognostic criteria.

Clinical monitoring (observation of clinical signs and symptoms and quality data) is no less important than the quantitative indicators obtained by using sophisticated equipment. Monitoring provides a timely evaluation of the circulatory function of the heart, vascular tone, blood volume and the overall adequacy of the blood supply of vital organs (Tingle & Bark, 2011).

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Health care provider and faith diversity essay

Caring for patients is somehow involving and it can be very tiring. One has to take extra care to protect him/her from exhaustion and especially due to lifting things and overworking. A man is a living being and has to rest every now and then both physically and emotionally. People can revive themselves from time to time to get rid of burnout and disorientation. In order to care for the patients more effectively, one has to care for him/herself, and not allow him/herself to get too exhausted. It is normal to feel exhausted and have burnout sometimes but feeling so all the time must be avoided because it is counter productive.

In order to take care of this problem, the first step is to identify it. Compassion fatigue can be caused by traumatic experiences in the line of work or too much work and too little rest. Physical and emotional exhaustion can make work impossible and leave one feeling hopeless and confused (Mathieu, 2012). This is why this phenomenon should be avoided at all costs by maintaining a healthy schedule and taking time to rest when one is not feeling well. Traumatic stress is most felt by caregivers because they meet more than one patient per day and they have to empathize with their patients all the time. It is normal to feel worn out and exhausted because of this and one can only hope to cope with the situation and get the best out of it by finding ways to combat burnout.

Traumatic stress can get the effect of a number factors in addition to the leading one will be losing patients that certain provides grown emotionally attached to. The next step towards healing plus protecting oneself is maintaining a professional distance and getting sure that health care provider understands that some situations are out of their fingers.

The only way caregiver can be efficient in caring for other people through first caring regarding self. It is because one may only give what he has inside. Unhealthy diet regime habits, skipping meals, functioning long hours and other similar practices will leave health care provider worn out and in no placement to care for any person else (Chapman, 2007).

Apart from feeling physically exhausted and drained, additional situations that should not have to get allowed in care supplying appear. Such situations trigger the caregiver to be spiritually drained and mentally torn. As far since health care provider offers these feelings, he/she ought to go and resolve them before going returning to work because such caregiver may be of little or no help to the patients. One should look after just about all aspects of health to be an all round person that others can lean on. Remember that working with patients is supposed um encourage them and give hope, and so health care and attention provider   must not necessarily look hopeless him/herself.

Indications of compassion fatigue contain:

    • Sensing of which you are indispensable in any number of patients’ lives and that when you abandon them also for a day they’re not going to survive.
    • Lack of sleep and being unable to rest away from hospital premises.
    • Unhealthy ingesting habits and skipping meals.
    • Developing resentful feelings towards patients in addition to those people whom you happen to be supposed to help.

There are usually a number of ways that one can save their particular lives and get clear of compassion fatigue. These are such as next:


Health care providers needs to take stock of their feelings and know when it is time to give themselves a break. Feelings of shame and self-blame do not help them but continue putting them down. It is all right to feel responsible for one’s patients but there are some situations that are beyond anyone’s powers and these include life and death. One should not be too hard on him/herself because of certain actions perceived as failure. This will make the person to be unable to care for the patients who really need care. When caregivers feel too overwhelmed by these negative feelings, the best thing to do is to take time off and take care of themselves in all the ways they can (Germer, 2009).

Cultivate equanimity

When it comes down to making the right decision, health care providers can only make it for themselves. It is essential for one to check his/her decisions before they go too far. Getting too emotionally involved in a patient’s life will not only bring health care provider more pain and frustration but it will leave the person emotionally exhausted. The patients are still human beings who are responsible for their own choices in life, which caregiver cannot help them make. Excessive attachment can occur to anyone and one must strive to sever those ties before they get too complicated. The heartbreak that results in losing a life is too great and health care provider cannot afford to feel so every time he/she loses a patient. The choice to be a happy caregiver who gives hope and life instead of taking it away remains in his/her hands (Gerner, 2009).

There are many other feelings associated with compassion fatigue. Some of these feelings are negative, they can leave health care providers hating themselves, and blaming themselves for situations they could not control. Feeling that theyy should get some kind of recognition for what they do is another sign of compassion fatigue. It breeds bad inner feelings that do not go away and can lead to rioting and bad work behavior. Health care providers should take care not to sacrifice more than they are willing to for work because they are bound to regret later. Putting ones life first is crucial in the process of eliminating compassion fatigue.

The caregiver has needs that range from physical, emotional and even spiritual. All these needs should be well catered for in order for them to be in a position to care for others. This is how caregivers should care for themselves:


Maintaining a healthy diet is one of the major points. This is because nursing needs a lot of energy and one cannot afford to miss meals. Health care provider should ensure having at least three balanced meals per day and a lot of snacking during the day in the cafeteria. This will ensure the caregiver has not hit an energy slump by mid morning. They should eat enough protein and carbohydrates for the body to be able to take the strain of walking around and lifting weighty things all through the day.

Getting enough sleep is another aspect of physical health. Caregiver needs enough rest in order to be productive. When the caregiver is on night shift, he/she should make sure to take some time during the day to sleep well and eat well. He/she should make a point of avoiding people who are on day shift as they may force the caregiver to stay awake when he/she is supposed to be resting.

Emotional health

Sometimes health care providers can get overwhelmed emotionally. The best thing to do is to take time off and take care of oneself. Counseling may be necessary to get rid of negative feelings and to be able to express them to someone else who understands. They should keep a professional distance in their relationships with patients to stop from being hurt (Gerner, 2009).

Spiritual health

In order for the caregivers to give hope to others, they should have that hope within themselves. A good spiritual life is what leads one to having hope and showing it to others. Life overwhelms people who do not have any kind of spirituality quickly because they have nowhere to run to. Spiritual health is essential for both emotional health and being able to share faith with others. The soul will from time to time require nourishment and so health care provider should take time to be alone with God and to be able to heal (Reese, 2008).

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Health Care Spending Analysis essay

United States’ health care, is provided by many legal entities. Health care facilities in the country, is owned and operated largely by the private sector. Health insurance is the main provider of the funding for healthcare in the private sector, with the high exception of programs including Medicare, TRICARE, Medicaid, the Children’s Insurance Program and the Health Administration for Veterans (Altman & Levitt, 2003). At least 15.3% of the country’s population is uninsured as per the latest results, and statistics and the country holds a substantial portion of the population estimated at 35% that is “underinsured”, or without the ability to cover the costs of their healthcare needs (Bob, 2008). More money per individual in United States is spent on health care than in any other regions across the world, with a greater percentage of income of individuals in the nation spent mainly on health care in the country than in any member of the United Nations state with an exemption of East Timor (Bob, 2008). Despite the fact that not all people are covered, the country has the third highest healthcare expenditure per capita in the public healthcare sector. From a 2001 study in five states across United States, it was revealed that medical debts added to at least 62% of all personal bankruptcies in the country. This paper discusses the national health care spending in the United States detailing all contents of the healthcare provision.

The country’s level of current national health care expenditures estimates at approximately 16% of the country’s GDP (Altman & Levitt, 2003). The Department of Human and Health Services expects that the share of GDP used in health will continue its upward trend, and would be reaching 19.5% of by 2017 as per the projections (Bob, 2008). This is in percentage of each dollar spent on medical care provision in the United States with at least 31% going to hospital care, 21% going to physician services, 10% being spent on pharmaceutical, 8% spent on nursing homes, 7% set aside for administrative costs, and an estimated 23% to all categories other than the named above this being (pharmacies, diagnostic laboratory services, and medical device manufacturers).

The Office of the particular Actuary (OACT) for Medicaid and Medicare Services publishes data on health treatment spending in total for the country, including both extremes in history and future projections (Healing daily). Within year 2007, the region spent $2. 26 trillion on taking care of the inside patients or relatively believed at $7, 439 each person, which was up from $2. 1 trillion the previous year (Altman & Levitt, 2003).   Spending in 2006 has been a representation of 16% of GDP, which revealed a 6. 7% enhance over 2004 spending. Development in spending on health care is projected to become at least 6. 7% yearly on the 2007 period via to 2017 projections.

Looking at the statistics plus projections as revealed in the United States investing, it is evident of which this is too very much when compared to fact that typically the healthcare can be provided from a lower cost. Typically the spending is generally way of the limit, and as many economists state, it is too very much (Bob, 2008). Health treatment spending in the country has continued outpacing the growth in income in addition to the growth in other countries’ spending ye many voters found in the country are with out sufficient medical care. Given that the failure of wellness care reform proposals of which, was proposed by typically the Clinton administration and reinforced by others, the region has had to look for alternative solutions to the huge problem in the way they can manage spending in the wellness sector (Bob, 2008). The Congressional Budget Office statement indicated that “about half of the growths espoused in health care investing previously 2 decades, have been related to reforms in health care care that have been possible by simply technology advances (Altman & Levitt, 2003). ” Other factors are amongst others changes in insurance, higher revenue levels, and rising prices. It is out regarding this that the presumptions can be made inside that the spending is too much as other departments in the country’ s economy are breaking down due to inadequate funds with regard to instance the food industry (Bob, 2008). The overspending arrives in with the undeniable fact that prescription drugs that are usually available everywhere, are utilized also much by the adults.

It can likewise be argued that the spending is too higher given the point that the worldwide spending levels of year 2150 indicated U. S. usually spends more on health care compared to other countries yet the particular technique same medical treatment services in the nation is below typically the OECD median. The creators of the study exposed that the prices paid out for medical care services are usually much higher in the united states with Medicaid and Medicare plans being, espoused because the main reason for increasing health care costs in the region (Bob, 2008). The overspending comes in also any time looking at the overall spending allowing for that this is concentrated (Altman & Levitt, 2003). From the particular latest analysis in 12 months 1996 and 2002, Health care Expenditure Panel Survey uncovered that only 1% of the population practicing the highest spending was inside account of 27% regarding aggregate medical care spending. The highest-spending 5% of the people accounted regarding a minimum of over a 50 percent of the healthcare investing (Bob, 2008).

The nation needs to cut these costs and strategize on the way forward to redeem the sector. The nation needs to lower rates in the insurance covers and introduce favorable ways of making sure that the spending is, lowered. This is because, the nation needs to build its economy and avoid some sectors from collapsing while still maintaining an exceptional level of national healthcare provision.

It is apparent that the public health care needs are, paid in different means, and they represent a certain percentage of the total expenditures (Bob, 2008). The expenditures vary with an estimated 84.7% of citizens having some form of insurance; either paid by their employer or the spouse or parent’s employer taking (59.3%), individually purchased (8.9%), or government programs (27.8%). All government programs have limited eligibility, and there is no health insurance company for the government that covers all citizens (Altman & Levitt, 2003). Americans without medical insurance coverage in year 2007 totaled an estimated 15.3% of the country’s population, or roughly 45.7 million people. In year 2004, private insurance took care of 36% of health expenditures, with the out-of-pocket taking 15%, state and local governments 11%, federal government 34%, and other funds from the private sector paying 4%. Due to “”an inefficient and dishonest system” that inflates bills sometimes to ten times the real cost, even patients who are, insured can be billed more than the ideal cost of their care (Healing daily).

Most Americans (59.3%) have their health insurance coverage paid by their employer (which incorporates both private and civilian public-sector employees) ideally under group coverage, even though the percentage is going down. Government programs also pay for the insurance as they cover an estimated 27.8% of the country’s population estimated to be 83 million that includes the elderly, veterans, disabled, children, and some of the poor (Healing daily). On the same note, the federal law mandates access to emergency services by the public regardless of ability to pay (Robert, Kim & John, 2001).

With the up surging rates of the health care, it is evident that the future economic needs of the health care system would sky rocket within an unusually short period (Robert, Kim & John, 2001). Costs for employer-paid insurance are on the rise rapidly: since year 2001, premiums for coverage of the family have increased 78%, with wages rising by 19% and inflation up surging to 17%, according to a study in 2007 by the Kaiser Family Foundation (Healing daily). Workers having employer-sponsored insurance are also contributors with a report in 2007 indicating the average percentage of paid premium as being 16% for single coverage and an estimated 28% for family coverage. There is therefore an indication that, without the control of spending, the economic needs in the future will be high particularly for emergencies and severe disease (Healing daily). The inflation rate is also on the increase and could affect the economy in due time bringing down the ability of the health sector to sustain itself (Robert, Kim & John, 2001). Therefore, these needs must be addressed, and this should be done on time to salvage the situation (Altman & Levitt, 2003). The needs need to be addressed to avoid the sky rocketing of prices as well as inflation levels for the health care in the country to hold as afforded to the public and instill control on the private sector (Robert, Kim & John, 2001).

The financing of the healthcare needs in the future will not be a problem with the strategies being, put in place. The Affordable Care and Patient Protection Act (Public Law 111-148) is a medical care reform bill signed into law in the country by President Obama early on March 23, 2010. Along with the Act of medical Care and Education Reconciliation of 2010 the Acts hold as a product of the medical care reform agenda of the 111th Congress in collaboration with the Obama administration (Healing daily). This is a powerful strategy that will help in the future health care provision, in the country. The law includes health-related provisions that will take effect over the four years term that include the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for the population making up to 133% of the FPL. It will be helpful in subsidizing insurance premiums that make up to 400% of FPL, provide incentives for organizations to provide health care benefits, prohibit denial of coverage as well as denial of claims on preexisting conditions. Therefore, there is a better future is the plan is in place within the stipulated time (Bob, 2008).

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Health Care Spending Paper essay


The United States of America is a country that has experienced tremendous achievements in the establishment of a model health care system. The current system is indeed functional within constraints of the impending economic dilemma experienced by many world economies. Despite these problems the giant economy’s analysts strive to establish spending rates, which are manageable in the current situation. This is amid growing population concerns that could significantly impact spending variables (Shi and Singh, 2009). In as much as there are measures established towards streamlining the national expenditure budget on health care there is need to establish better systems aimed at promoting sustainable economic achievements.

Current Level of National Healthcare Expenditures

The current national healthcare expenditure levels simulate a drift towards the emancipation of critical health attention systems. The mode regarding service provision in america associated with America is mainly operate though the already founded public and private wellness care entities. Yet , the greater part of health care organizations are privately owned plus this includes a particular impact on the manner in which the system fundamentally operates (Shi and Singh, 2009). The particular support of health care programs is mainly through Medicare, Medicaid, Veterans Well being Administration, Children’ s Wellness Insurance Program, and private insurance coverage companies, which provide key support for the essential health care system. The current expenditure in the United State’ s medical care stands in a big figure regarding 16. 3% from the country’ s Gross Domestic Product (Herman and Alison, 2009). This figure is unfortunately ranked among the maximum going by the present world rates.

This specific trend may progressively surge as population variable raise against a backdrop of fluctuating market value associated with the United States Money. The Actuary office found in Medicare and Medical planning project that this spending level is bound to increase to about 20% inside by the year 2019 (Herman and Alison, 2009). An explanation of this number indicates that physician solutions account for over even just the teens, pharmaceuticals account for 10%, hospital care accounts regarding 32% of the total expenditure (Herman and Alison, 2009). The spending amounts have been increasing progressively as the years keep on progressing. In the yr 2009 for example, the spending level began to be $2. 51 trillion bucks, which translates to $8, 047 per person plus 17. 33% of the particular Gross Domestic Product going by the current estimates of the total PEOPLE human population (Herman plus Alison, 2009).

Is usually Spending Too Much or perhaps Not?

These investing levels are relatively great going by the present estimates of the planet economic and spending general trends. These consistently high statistics are due to the adjustments going on in typically the medical industry with regard to current legislation provision inside health care, technology alter and increased need regarding medical personnel in the particular newly established centers. Financial experts postulate that the particular spending trends exhibited in health care are fundamentally high to the stage that other economy sectors are feeling the tension (Shi and Singh, 2009). The reason being health care will be internationally rearded as a basic human right hence changing some of their trends has proven in order to be an uphill task. These factors were furthermore fundamentally established through a crucial review of the approaching congress budget recently authorized by benefit office.

Other variables leading to be able to this kind of an association include an raise of the expenditure ranges in health care insurance coverage, drug prescriptions, and scientific enhancements (Lemco, 1999). Found in addition the role enjoyed by the factor regarding income variables is furthermore a major contributor. A new recent study conducted upon member countries from the Corporation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that the US is a fellow member demonstrates it spends fairly high compared to other member states. However, following conducting sufficient statistical analysis it was established that the figure is method below the standard median for OECD after which often analysts attributed this reality to high spending designs on the average US citizen.

Where we as a nation, ought to add or where we should reduce

There is dire need to carry out a cost benefit analysis on the state of affairs concerning United State’s impending high health care costs. The responsibility of health care is spread across many stakeholders all who aim at guaranteeing accessibility to these basic services. Thorough stakeholder involvement would serve to identify some of gaping holes leading to the daily increasing costs (Shi and Singh, 2009). Stakeholders responsible for paying health care services need to stage focused group discussions in order to identify critical areas of health care that need more attention. This would ultimately involve households, businesses, and Government departments. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality launched a Medical Expenditure survey in order to establish areas where citizens tend to spend more, the age groups concerned and the modes of payment. It was established that a good percentage of United States citizens spend significantly on children health care services and among the vulnerable groups include age groups 0 – 18, 45 – 54, 65 – 74, and 85 and over (Shi and Singh, 2008). Among these groups, household contribution came more from the age group 19 – 64 which represents the working adults.

This signifies that there is need for the Government to establish elaborate insurance plans, which offer relative packages with due consideration of citizen status at relative points as opposed to the utilization of fixed plans. There is also need for a shift in focus towards the expenditure in preventive healthcare, as this would ultimately benefit the population in a great way (Shi and Singh, 2009). This should essentially implemented in a progressive fashion through the sensitization of the population on the need to lead healthier lifestyles in order to cut household health care costs. There is also a need for future national healthcare expenditure plans to include the involvement of projected economic analyses which can be subjected to periodic changes to incorporate the constantly changing variables.

How the health care needs of the general public are paid

Health care needs for the general public are paid for by various organs established through certain institutional framewworks.  Some of the organs responsible for paying healthcare bills include health insurance companies most of which are privately owned. The Employees Benefit Research Institute indicates that health insurance plans purchased through employer enabled plans account for 59.34%; plans purchased through individual arrangement account for over 8.94%; and Government supported plans area accounting for 27.83% (Herman and Alison, 2009). There is a strict allotment criterion, which is based on the provision of eligibility plans for the existing employee database. The  Medicare plan is generally meant for the older resident citizens who are over 65 years of age while Medicaid targets vulnerable populations with specific focus on those who are financial disadvantaged; these account for 3.13% for Medicare and 13% for Medicaid of the total national health insurance expenditures according to current statistics (Herman and Alison, 2009).

There are government plans, which cater for the insured lot of the population who are mostly immigrants and some able persons financially. However, data from the US census bureau of statistics show that this figure, which is about 16.12% of total insured health care cost, goes unaccounted for since these are in the form of uncompensated plans (Lemco, 1999). In a  recent study carried out by economic analysts it was established that high health care costs were partly attributed to the influence from inflated bills as seen in private establishments. These are responsible for the current 15% out of pocket personal initiatives to cover for extra unaccounted for costs, which is a growing among mainstream healthcare practitioners.

Forecast of Future Economic Needs of the health care system

The trend in the healthcare system postulates an increase in the annual expenditures for both the government and private health providers. For instance, the national healthcare expenditure per capita is bound to rise to a high of 17.3% according to the annual percentage change rates. The nursing home care expenditures are also bound to rise to an projected increase in the number of citizens belonging to the older population. This figure is projected at reach well above $144.1 billion US dollars, which has been occasioned by a slower price growth of health related commodities (Shi and Singh, 2008). This will impact on health provision by Medicare and Medicaid programs since majority of these persons fall under their jurisdiction.

There will also be an increase in expenditure budgets of majority of physician and clinical service providers. These needs are important in enhancing the general health care of the American citizen. They are also in pursuit of the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals which envision the development of health care programs towards sustainability while focusing on future population fundamentals (Shi and Singh, 2008). These needs can be achieved through the development of efficient funding mechanisms, which pursue a bottom up approach as opposed to the current top down approach. This fundamentally reduces the governments burden on its citizens for catering for their healthcare. Another approach that can be used is the pursuit of unilateral health plans, which incorporate citizenship goals and elaborates on the decentralization of insurance health programs.

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Health Concepts and Behavior Change essay

The definition of health has been an elusive matter for sociologists as various definitions have emerged from different health professionals. Whereas other scholars have defined it as a negative approach to health or the lack of illnesses in the human body, others portend that health is the absence of mental, physical, social, or spiritual well-being in an individual. The latter definition has been accepted by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) formal definition. With the varying definitions of health, understanding or describing its concepts depend on an individual take. Having reviewed many health articles, I find the holistic, positive, and negative health concepts to be popular with majority of health experts.

The negative concept keeps that health in a good individual is the lack of pain, distress, in addition to disease symptoms. Those who consider in the negative concept have the view that will it is not unique to have good well being and thus, they do not take seriously actually fine. This complacency the actual supporters of this concept never to take remedial measures to stay healthy. This is mainly witnessed we have no minor health conditions like frequent cold, tiredness, or depressive disorder. Secondly, positive concept keeps that I is going to take ongoing actions in order in order to well-being and health. Proponents of the positive concept pose of which I should blame personally when I develop illness symptoms but take credit rating when my actions help me lead a healthy existence. Finally, the holistic principle of health views of which being healthy imply a situation when I do not possess any physical challenges, or even illnesses but having emotional discomfort.

It is practically difficult to make a choice on the particular best concept to utilize in my understanding of wellness as the circumstances we face in life carry out vary. The concept associated with health has evolved over the years because in the older days, the negative idea was mainly appreciated givn that people led a more natural life that is free from polluted environment. Nevertheless, using the many diseases of the modern era, that would be critical to develop a positive concept due to the fact preventive medicine now describes the future of medicine.

We are an ardent preacher of the positive idea because of personal beliefs and social factors. Individually, I feel that exercise is a significant part of the particular diet that is needed to make the physique function properly. WHO statement estimates that lack of exercise account for one. 9 million deaths each annum, (Selvan, Wilkinson & Chamberlain, 2004). Consequently, the role of women inside the corporate scene is reducing their conventional role of house makers. Within this cacophony, all members of the family have a fraction of the time to prepare home foods and instead opt for fast food. As Selvan et al. (2004) note, the Western nations will be the the majority of affected by the dietary change because of the particular changing social demography.

Part 2: My Successful Behavior Change

I would have been a cigarette smoker were it not for my behavior change. Two of my best friends were cigarette smokers and due to peer pressure, I was almost on the verge of engaging in the practice. Luckily, I had an opportunity to meet a stroke patient was state of health was further complicated due to his smoking habit. The complication of cigarette smoking among stroke patients is buttressed by Aldoori (1998) that,”Cigarette smoking is a definite independent risk factor for stroke, particularly ischemic stroke.” This is because smoking raises fibrinogen levels packed cell volume. As a positive concept health proponent, I decided to take precaution and desist from ever thinking of holding a cigarette in my hand.

Even though my behavior change towards smoking would have been easy because I was never became a smoker, it is ccritical for a health care provider to do their best in developing a comprehensive intervention for stroke patients. As Visser-Meily, Post, Gorter & Berdenis (2006) write, “Intervention should be focused on the family’s problems and needs, learning to set goals, problem-solving and using coping strategies, (p. 1560).

In line with the positive concept of health, nursing interventions should stretch beyond the confines of care centers and focus on preventive care. Sims (2011) posits that achieving preventive care medicine calls for the collaborative competence of all professionals in educating the society. Hence, in order to promote behavior change in the society, an all-inclusive preventive strategy is essential (Barr, Hammick, Koppel & Reeves 1999).

The collaboration among different professionals will ensure the patient recovers promptly. Collaboration between a nurse and a social worker is becoming acceptable in all facets of health care practice. This is because of the need to practice health practices to provide state-of-the-art psychosocial-medical care, which requires professionals to be interdependent. Social workers also advise patients, their family members and on how to handle the various stages of nursing care. For the different professionals to work together, the communication channel must be responsive to react to any state of emergency in the rehabilitation of the patient.

Moreover, to curb the social ill of over-reliance on fast food and poor exercise behaviors, the most preferred strategies is the promotion of work-site wellness programs at places of work. Work-site wellness and health promotion programs would allow the participation of workers in positive health concepts for healthier lifestyles. This will be vital in preventing the onset of a disease or worsening of a medical condition.

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Health Information Changes essay

The benefits of health information changes include; first, it allows for efficient treatment of the patients. There is faster turnaround time for results. Patients are also given medication quickly hence reducing chances of dying. Secondly, it is easier for consultations because physicians are able to access and view results from different location provided the computer can access her. Thirdly, the number of duplicate tests is reduced (Amatayakul & Lazarus, 2005).

Health Information System essay

Health Information System provides a way for health systems to assimilate information from diverse sources. This enables the health system to utilize information gathered for formulating policies that will enhance the management of the health system. In essence, Health Information System denotes a process of achieving this either via the electronic, like use of computers or paper based, such as clinical guiding principles (Blumenthal, 2006). Because of the varied fronts from which the management of a health system derives its information, the application of Health Information System can be challenging. This is majorly because of the fragmentation of information as well as gathering of deficient information within the system.

Subsequent to the advent of computer technology, most health facilities have adopted this new means of communication and embraced it in their services. Most health facilities in the USA are now using computers to facilitate communication within the system as well as acquire information that can help in formulating feasible policies. Historically, the dentistry field of healthcare was the first to implement this technological advancement. Contemporarily, many facilities have adapted this and can obtain health information of patients easily. This paper seeks to critique the Health Information System with reference to the USA.

During his tenure, President George Bush assented to a administrative order that generated the founding of typically the “ Office of the National Coordinator for Wellness Information Technology (ONCHIT)”. This was brought under the “ U. S. Section of Health and Individual Services”. Somehow, this begun a necessity for all those well being systems to adapt the particular Health Information System by way of electronic means. In substance, the federal government of the U. S has played the key role for making this particular decision. The “ Department of Health and Human Services” acts as the particular overall seer in ensuring that the health systems adhere to this government recommendation. Furthermore, it has formulated regulatory rules of which advocate for the use of computers in order to record information about health. In inclusion to certifying the make use of of Health Information System, the particular federal government further gives incentives for practitioners as well as the health facilities. The “ National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)” and “ American Hospital Association (AHA)” are among the key element federal organizations that have got been set up to be able to assess the implementation associated with the Health Information Program (Blumenthal, 2006).

A team of expert physicians working under the NAMCS annually assesses the way Health Information System will be being implemented in typically the U. S health facilities. According to the MARYLAND and President of the particular “ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)”, Chief Medical Editor, Nancy Synderman, the particular use of Health Information Systems has been on the increase since 2011. Physicians can attribute this progress to the desire to be able to receive financial incentives through the government. In relationship to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act regarding 2009, health facilities and physicians alike are needed to fulfill an amount of requirements before they may be considered for the economic incentive. The Chief Health care Editor of RWJF realizes that this is an important step by the federal government to ensure that patient medical information is free from danger (Painter, 2012).

The use of computer systems in health systems superior after the progressive developments of technology. The use of such technology inside health systems could be traced to 1959. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation takes on a major role in neuro-scientific health care. This base provides financial assistance in order to anumber of Health Details Systems. Among this can be the Indiana Health Information Exchange. Subsequent to its creation, the Indiana Health Information Exchange knowledgeable numerous challenges. For case, matters regarding culture since well as consumer perspectives, made it difficult regarding the organization to share public health information (Painter, 2012). Following its original focus on issuing information to primary care medical professionals, this new changes posed an excellent challenge for the particular Indiana Information about health Exchange, since; the new system would require it to offer public information. Additionally, this raised concern among the stakeholders of the organization regarding what kind of details was required to end up being availed towards the public.

Primarily, the Health Information System in the In Information Exchange was created by means of the federal requirement of healthcare facilities to implement new techniques in processing their information. Initially, information was availed more quickly considering that, it had been only intended for a new sizeable public comprising associated with primary physicians. However, together with the demand to avail information to the general public, the Indiana Health Information Exchange, operating under the particular RWJF required to improve on its technology and upgrade its system. The then national coordinator in the “ Office of the Nationwide Coordinator for Health Details Technology”, David Blumenthal, MD, and M. M. G advocated for this by encouraging physicians to avail their information in digital form from the traditional record keeping. This move would certainly then enable them because well as hospitals to supply public information with respect to the federal necessity (Schoenbaum et al., 2003).

Most of the systems in use under the RWJF as well as the Indiana Health Information Exchange were developed in house. Prior to the federal requirement to avail health information to the public, the Indiana Health Information Exchange was implementing electronic systems in processing its health information. Essentially, this was a key consideration for organizations, which sought to receive financial incentives from the government. These incentives further enable the health system to enhance its operations by acquiring relevant infrastructure. However, despite the existing structures, the organization had to obtain the appropriate software for enhancing the new requirements (Painter, 2012).

Consequently, there was need to outsource technical assistance. Considering that this is a new invention, there was need for implementing new policies that would direct the effectiveness of the same. This was developed both through in house measures as well as through external forces. The federal government has provided feasible directives that govern the implementation of Health Information Systems. There was need to incorporate these requirements to the existing regulations within the organization to enable the physicians and medical practitioners to operate effectively (Schoenbaum et al., 2003).

In the advent of implementing Health Information Systems in health facilities, especially in the Indiana Health Information Exchange, stakeholders were consulted. They played a vital role in the process of implementing the Health Information Systems. For instance, they helped in the analysis of the information content and helped to determine which information should be availed to the public and which should be withheld. Considering that this organization only focused on the primary physicians, changing the system to include the public necessitated a need to restructure the type and content of information to be disseminated. The stakeholders came in handy at helping the management to identify the appropriate information to be availed for the beneefit of the public (Painter, 2012).

Additionally, the stakeholders like the RWJF, which seeks to ensure proper health care for the citizens of U.S and the federal government, which is a key player in ensuring that its citizens can access proper health care enabled the health facility to advance its systems by providing financial support. In an advent of adapting new technologies, organizations face the challenge of financing the same. Without the help of sponsors or donors, most organizations fail to implement fully. Financial incentives from the federal government play an important role in enabling the health facility to meet new challenges and tackle upcoming issues (Blumenthal, 2006).

Other vital stakeholders include the consumers of the health services. This group of stakeholders comes in handy especially in ensuring the continued existence of health facilities. Considering that they are at the forefront of receiving health care services, consumers of health care need to be reassured of privacy of their health information and security o the same. The Health Information Systems could pose a danger to consumer privacy especially if the health information is not properly guarded.


In summary, Health Information System denote a process via which health facilities process information obtained from varied sources which helps in the formulation of health policies. Health information can be processed in varied ways, either electronically by use of computers or via paper basis by use of clinical guidelines. The diverse nature of the sources of health information in a health facility pose a challenge to the management of the same mostly because of the disintegrated nature of the information gathered. The use of computers in the field of health care services obtained its popularity with the advent of computers. In the early centuries, the dentistry facilities were the only health services using computer technology to process medical information. Following the assent to administrative order by President George Bush in 2004, many health facilities took to this new technology. With the establishment of government bodies like the ONCHIT under the State Department of Health and Human Services, health facilities were able to achieve the Health Information System standard from the financial incentives they received.

According to the President of RWJF, use of computers in recording health information has been on the increase following the government’s initiative to provide financial incentives for the health facilities. To implement this system effectively, health facilities have had to overcome a number of challenges. For instance, cultural issues as well as consumer perspective; changing the system structures has required the health facilities to seek the opinion of their stakeholders as well assess their current structure. This helps in incorporating the new requirements to the existing system, making it easier for the health facilities to meet the government expectations.

As discussed above, the implementation of the Health Information System calls for various considerations and changes. For instance, in the case of the Indiana Health Information Exchange, new techniques had to be put up to facilitate this technology. New software was acquired to enable the organization to facilitate the provision of health information to the public. Additionally, technical assistance was sought from the RWJF and the federal government enabling the management to effectively restructure its system and observe the regulations. Consumer perspective was also considered to ensure that the health information issued to the public was appropriate and that no privacy issues were breeched.

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Adlerian and Reality Therapy essay

Adlerian therapy and reality therapy are two examples of psychotherapy commonly used in counseling. Psychotherapy counseling of clients is through interaction between a professional counselor and a client. This treatment tries to improve the well being of an individual. Schools and psychological institutions widely use Alderian and Reality therapy to improve mental health. The two mentioned counseling approaches uses different concepts, but they share other things.

Adlerian therapy bases on the interactions and conflicts that creates an individual’ s feelings or ego. According in order to Adler, ego is the particular epi-center of personality, and it makes an personal (Carlson, 2005). It stimulates and also informs the client in order to proper the mistakes in the collaborative way. In very a related way, Fact therapy, bases on the particular connection of a particular person and other people (Wubbolding, 2010). The unsatisfactory or not enough connection between people creates problems at the individual levl.


The concepts regarding both therapies focus about the present. Adler believes that the childhood experience tend not to matter as much, but it is the belief and the lessons sucked from the past that issues most (Carlson, 2005). Reality therapy, alternatively, argues that the unsatisfactory relation that will we have currently, leads to the difficulties and not the past.

While giving reality therapy, it is necessary to avoid blaming, criticism or making complains since it discourages the client. Adlerian therapy also involves a lot of encouragements which builds self-confidence and enhances courage to take life positively. 


While Alderman Therapy works on rediscovering self, Reality therapy aims at reconnecting the client and other people. It involves looking into the issues causing the problem. The reality therapy also eemphasizes on the realization that it is only through excuses that the relation breaks; and workable plans support the reconnection of individual. In contrast,  Adlerian therapy aims at the rediscovering of self and developing better behaviors. In addition to the contrast, Adlerian therapy believes that people with the inferiority complex do not function properly in the society just as in the case of birth order. On the other hand, the use of choice theory enables the client realize that the only person they can take control over is themselves, and the reconnection with other people will work out well.


Whether on the approach of Adler or reality, the most important, expected result is the accommodating and thriving relationship between an individual and other people. Be it through self-recognition (Adler) or appreciation and maintaining competent relationship with other people (reality therapy), counseling is undoubtedly helpful. 

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