FlashCards for Students

Health and Wellness Chapter 1 and five steps to cancer

Learning Objectives Describe the medical and wellness models of health. List the key points of the World Health Organization definition of health. List and describe the six dimensions of wellness. List the three health behaviors responsible for most of the actual causes of death. Define lifestyle disease. The Definition of HealthLearning Objectives (continued) Identify the goals of Healthy People 2020. List and describe the major health issues of college students. Describe the Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model, and Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior. The Definition of HealthModels of Health Dimensions of Health and Wellness Lifestyle Diseases The U.S. Medical Care System Healthy People 2020 Health Issues of College Students Making Healthy L...

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The Correlation Between Cancer and Carcinogens

Carcinogen is better known as substances capable of causing cancer in living tissue. From looking at our lecture notes, we learn that the cancer rate increased tremendously from 1900 to 1990.People can inherit cancer genetically or from natural exposure. It is said and believed that substances that we use daily can cause us to be exposed to cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, environmental factors can include a wide range of exposures, such as nutrition, medical treatments, workplace exposure, pollution, household exposures, and naturally occurring exposures. Scientists often experiment on animals and cell cultures to determine what may cause different types of cancers. I do not feel as though new chemicals undergo proper or sufficient testing before i...

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The Prevention and Treatment of the Deadly Lung Cancer

Deadly Lung Cancer A common type of cancer is lung cancer, which starts by the mutation of DNA and uncontrolled growth of mutated cells in at least one lung. These mutations are caused by factors including breathing in cigarette smoke and being exposed to radon gas. As its name implies, lung cancer affects the lungs. It can potentially spread from one part of a lung to covering all of both lungs if malignant tumors are present. Lung cancer is most prominent in people over the age of sixty, but sometimes it can start years prior. There are four stages of lung cancer. In stage I, the cancer is only present in the lungs. In stage II, the cancer spreads into the lymph nodes. In stage III, the cancer spreads into the lymph nodes of the middle of the chest. In stage IV, t...

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The role of fat cell in the development of ovarian cancer

Introduction Body fat is made up of fat cells, or adipose cells. These cells are made of one or more fatty acids and a glycerol. In the form of triglycerides, fat cells store fat later converted into energy and used by the body when needed. Ovarian cancer is cancer in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs that reproduce eggs. There is no cure for cancer, but the cause of this cancer is also undiscovered. Although, the cause of the cancer is unknown, there are many factors that affect the development of ovarian cancer. If a woman gives birth early in life, it decreases her chance for the development of ovarian cancer. Woman who have a family with a history of ovarian or breast cancer are at high risk for being diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Older woman have a hig...

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Prostate Cancer: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

In the year of 2018, researchers predict that 164,690 new cases and 29,430 deaths will arise from the most common type of male reproductive cancer (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2018). Reproductive cancers affect the organs that are responsible for reproduction in the human body. For males, this constitutes their organs; the testicles, prostate gland, and the penis (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2017). So, what is the most common type of reproductive cancer in males? According to the Mayo Foundation, it is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is defined as a cancer that originates from the prostate gland due to the uncontrollable growth of its cells (ACS, 2018). The function of the prostate gland is to produce seminal fluid which is a component of s...

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Metastasis, as a Cause of Cancer Related Mortality

More than 90% of of cancer related mortality is caused by metastasis. To develop new therapeutic strategies it is vital to understand the initiation and progression of metastasis. To identify and isolate metastasis initiating tumour-cells scientists developed a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based array. There are two types of metastasis-cells: metastasis-cells from low-burden cells and metastasis-cells from high-burden cells. After being transplanted, low-burden metastasis-cells showed that they have a considerable amount of tumour initiating ability and could differentiate to produce luminal-like cancer cells. When low-burden metastatic cells progress to high-burden metastasis cells they get an increased proliferation and MYC expression. This can be wea...

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Lung Cancer Prevention

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women. Lung cancer prevention is more than just avoiding smoking. More than half of the people who get lung cancer are not current smokers. Here are a few tips that might help prevent lung cancer:Avoid smoking: Smoking is the one of the leading cause of lung cancer, responsible for about 80 percent of lung cancers. If you have quit smoking your healthy tissue starts repair itself gradually. If you need help to quit visit smokefree.gov or text QUIT to 47848 from your mobile device. Grab some motivation to quit smoking by going through testimonials of ex-smokers and how quitting helped them benefit their quality of life. Check for radon levels at your home: For people who don’t smoke radon is the first thing...

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The Cancer burden in Kenya

The Cancer burden has become a huge steadily emerging Public Health concern that at large continues to receive minimal priority in Africa especially in the Sub Sahara even though the incidence of cancer in the region has markedly increased.(Kimani et al, 2017). In 2012 alone according to Parkin et al, 2014), the incidence of cancer in Africa was 6% (847000 new cases) with a mortality of 591,000 cases of which 75% of the global burden was in the Sub Sahara Africa. Prostate cancer in men and Breast cancer in women are the commonest cancer in the region. Furthermore, it is estimated that in the next decade more than 20 million people will be diagnosed with cancer annually with over 70% of the global death to occur particularly in the Sub Sahara Africa and other low incom...

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Discuss various historical theories and misconception of cancer (pre 1890s)

Some believe that cancer is a modern disease in our time, but the fact that cancer exists thousands of years ago. The oldest cancer case in ancient Egypt was found in a written description of the cancer in the Egyptian papyrus which the details were referred to eight cases of breast tumors dating back to between 1500-3000 BC. It was treated by cauterization which destroyed tissue. The ancient surgical manuscripts describe the bleakly note, “There is no treatment”(2) only palliative treatment. It was believed that cancer was caused by the Gods. In Ancient Greece, Hippocrates believed that the body was composed of four fluids 🙁 blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile). It is believed that the presence excess of black bile in any site of the body caused ca...

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Oncology and Cancer

Oncology means an area of medical science which deals with tumours and cancers. The word onco means mass, bulk, or tumor while logy means study. A medical practitioner who treats oncology is known as an oncologist. Usually, an oncologist deals with care and treatment once a person is diagnosed with cancer. Cancer is an abnormal cell growth with the possibility to spread or invade to other parts of the body as well. Not all tumors are cancerous which benign tumors do not extend to other body parts. Cancer also called as a malignant neoplasm or malignant tumor.Conference Series organizes numerous Cancer conferences on different types of cancers such as breast cancer, leukemia, oral cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, prostate cancer, cervical ...

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