FlashCards for Students

Pathology, Chronic Gastritis ,Gastric Cancer

Helicobacter pylori gastritis presents as a predominantly antral gastritis with high acid production, despite hypogastrinemia. The risk of duodenal ulcer is increased in these patients. In a subset of patients the gastritis progresses to involve the gastric body and fundus. This pangastritis is associated with multifocal mucosal atrophy, reduced acid secretion, intestinal metaplasia, and increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.H. pylori These spiral-shaped or curved bacilli are present in gastric biopsy specimens of almost all patients with duodenal ulcers and the majority of individuals with gastric ulcers.polymorphisms in the gene encoding the pro-inflam...

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Pathology 13 – Colon Cancer

Non-neoplastic polyps: Hyperplastic polyps, juvenile polyps, inflammatory polyps, hamatomatous polyps, Peutz-Jegners polyps, lymphoid polypsClassification of neoplastic polyps: Arise as the result of epithelial proliferation and dysplasia, precursors of carcinoma. 5% of Americans have them, make up ~10% of epithelial polypsTubular/pedunculated adenomas appearance: Mosty tubular glands, recapitulating mucosal topology, slender stalks, raspnerry-like heads, stalk covered by normal colonic mucosa, head composed of neoplastic epithelium – branching glands, tall hyperchromatic disorderly cellsVillous adenomas appearance: Villous projections, larger, ...

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Chapter 24: Care of Patients with Cancer

1. What statement indicates that the client understands teaching about neutropenia? a. “I need to use a soft toothbrush.” b. “I have to wear a mask at all times.” c. “My grandchildren may get an infection from me.” d. “I will call my doctor if I have an increase in temperature.” ANS: D Bone marrow suppression leads to neutropenia and increases the client’s risk for infection. Decreased numbers of neutrophils and other white blood cells can minimize the clinical manifestations of infection. For this reason, the client may not develop a high temperature, even with severe infection, and any elevation of temperature should be reported immediately ...

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FlashCards for Students

Laryngeal cancer

Overview Malignant cells in the tissues of the larynx or voice box Squamous cell carcinoma—most common form (95% of cases) Adenocarcinoma and sarcoma—rare (5% of cases) Intrinsic tumor (located on the true vocal cords; tends not to spread because underlying connective tissues lack lymph nodes) or extrinsic tumor (located on another part of the larynx; tends to spread easily)Overview-Pathophysiology Laryngeal cancer is classified by its location: supraglottic (on the false vocal cords) glottic (on the true vocal cords) subglottic (rare downward extension from the vocal cords). supraglottic (on the false vocal cords) glottic (on the true vocal cords) subglottic (rare downward extension from t...

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Free Essay Examples For Students

The different types of cancer cells lines

Exosomes are nanoscale, extracellular vesicles secreted by most of the cells [1] and differ in their size, shape and molecular composition from other vesicles released from the cell [2]. Exosomes have a round to cup shaped morphology with a lipid bilayer membrane and released into the extracellular spaces and the size of exosomes varies from 30nm to 150nm [3,4]. Besides their nano size morphology other defining characteristics of exosomes include density gradient of 1.13-1.21g/ml [5] and protein markers such as the tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, CD81), Alix, Hsp70, Tsg101 [6]. It has been established that cells can release various types of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, ectosomes, micro-vesicles and recently identified large oncosome [7] therefore, it is very impo...

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If Dogs Can Smell Cancer, Why Don’t They Screen People?

Dogs have very powerful noses. So the question is can they smell cancer? They can be trained to use their noses to smell cancerous fumes that are wafting from the diseased cells. The sniffing is noninvasive, and can help diagnose a lot of people. Dogs might be able to be helpful to make man-made tools that can “smell” cancer. Cancerous cells has a specific odor to them and scientist haven’t /don’t know what the smells are. Dogs can lead to positive outcomes in helping find cancer odors specifically. They give the dog(s) samples that have cancerous cells in them, each time they remove a compound from the sample. If the dog doesn’t react to the sample that they put then they know that the sample has to do with a specific cancerous cell senses. Researchers can make “bioc...

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The global health problem of skin cancer

Skin cancer is a preeminent global public health problem. Over the past three decades, more people have had skin cancer than the combined incidence of cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, and colon. Skin cancer is generally classified into two discrete categories such as malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic cutaneous carcinoma (NMSC). NMSC is much more frequent than melanoma, in that basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts the majority of cases for about 80%–85% and has a low rate of metastasis, whereas squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a higher tendency to metastasize and mortality than BCC. In contrast, melanoma represents less than one percent of skin cancer but accounts for 80% of all cutaneous carcinomas related deaths. An estimated five-year survival rate of mel...

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Breast Cancer Awareness

Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. Supporters hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure. Breast cancer advocacy and awareness efforts are a type of health advocacy. Breast cancer advocates raise funds and lobby for better care, more knowledge, and more patient empowerment. They may conduct educational campaigns or provide free or low-cost services. Breast cancer culture, sometimes called pink ribbon culture, is the cultural outgrowth of breast cancer advocacy, the social movement that supports it...

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Bladder Cancer (BC): types and stages

Bladder Cancer that is in an early stage of growth may not produce any noticeable signs or symptoms. The most common sign of BC is hematuria (bloody urine; urine that appears bright red or rusty) usually is painless and may appear only from time to time over a period of months. Over 80% of all BC patients eventually do experience either gross or microscopic hematuria. BC that becomes necrotic may shed pieces of dead tissue into the urine. Fragments of papillary tissue and calcareous deposits are other forms of tumor-related matter that may be passed out with the urine. Histology of Bladder Cancer: Of the different types of cells that form the bladder, the cells lining the inside of the bladder wall are most likely to develop cancer. Any of three different cell types can...

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Biomarker for Cancer

Classification of biomarker Major cellular biomarkers correlated with the clinical outcome of cancer have been reported, which were refined with a focus on the relationship between prognostic or survival parameters of cancer patients and their expression levels, mainly using immunohistochemistry (Oliveira & Ribeiro-Silva, 2011). The biomarkers could be classified into five groups based on their biological functions:cell cycle progression and proliferation; tumor suppression and apoptosis; hypoxia; angiogenesis; cell adhesion and matrix degradation.IL-6 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with significant functions in the regulation of the immune system. As a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 plays a pivotal role in host defense against pathogens...

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