Free Essay Examples For Students

The different types of cancer cells lines

Exosomes are nanoscale, extracellular vesicles secreted by most of the cells [1] and differ in their size, shape and molecular composition from other vesicles released from the cell [2]. Exosomes have a round to cup shaped morphology with a lipid bilayer membrane and released into the extracellular spaces and the size of exosomes varies from 30nm to 150nm [3,4]. Besides their nano size morphology other defining characteristics of exosomes include density gradient of 1.13-1.21g/ml [5] and protein markers such as the tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, CD81), Alix, Hsp70, Tsg101 [6]. It has been established that cells can release various types of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, ectosomes, micro-vesicles and recently identified large oncosome [7] therefore, it is very impo...

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If Dogs Can Smell Cancer, Why Don’t They Screen People?

Dogs have very powerful noses. So the question is can they smell cancer? They can be trained to use their noses to smell cancerous fumes that are wafting from the diseased cells. The sniffing is noninvasive, and can help diagnose a lot of people. Dogs might be able to be helpful to make man-made tools that can “smell” cancer. Cancerous cells has a specific odor to them and scientist haven’t /don’t know what the smells are. Dogs can lead to positive outcomes in helping find cancer odors specifically. They give the dog(s) samples that have cancerous cells in them, each time they remove a compound from the sample. If the dog doesn’t react to the sample that they put then they know that the sample has to do with a specific cancerous cell senses. Researchers can make “bioc...

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The global health problem of skin cancer

Skin cancer is a preeminent global public health problem. Over the past three decades, more people have had skin cancer than the combined incidence of cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, and colon. Skin cancer is generally classified into two discrete categories such as malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic cutaneous carcinoma (NMSC). NMSC is much more frequent than melanoma, in that basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts the majority of cases for about 80%–85% and has a low rate of metastasis, whereas squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a higher tendency to metastasize and mortality than BCC. In contrast, melanoma represents less than one percent of skin cancer but accounts for 80% of all cutaneous carcinomas related deaths. An estimated five-year survival rate of mel...

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Breast Cancer Awareness

Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment. Supporters hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure. Breast cancer advocacy and awareness efforts are a type of health advocacy. Breast cancer advocates raise funds and lobby for better care, more knowledge, and more patient empowerment. They may conduct educational campaigns or provide free or low-cost services. Breast cancer culture, sometimes called pink ribbon culture, is the cultural outgrowth of breast cancer advocacy, the social movement that supports it...

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Bladder Cancer (BC): types and stages

Bladder Cancer that is in an early stage of growth may not produce any noticeable signs or symptoms. The most common sign of BC is hematuria (bloody urine; urine that appears bright red or rusty) usually is painless and may appear only from time to time over a period of months. Over 80% of all BC patients eventually do experience either gross or microscopic hematuria. BC that becomes necrotic may shed pieces of dead tissue into the urine. Fragments of papillary tissue and calcareous deposits are other forms of tumor-related matter that may be passed out with the urine. Histology of Bladder Cancer: Of the different types of cells that form the bladder, the cells lining the inside of the bladder wall are most likely to develop cancer. Any of three different cell types can...

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Biomarker for Cancer

Classification of biomarker Major cellular biomarkers correlated with the clinical outcome of cancer have been reported, which were refined with a focus on the relationship between prognostic or survival parameters of cancer patients and their expression levels, mainly using immunohistochemistry (Oliveira & Ribeiro-Silva, 2011). The biomarkers could be classified into five groups based on their biological functions:cell cycle progression and proliferation; tumor suppression and apoptosis; hypoxia; angiogenesis; cell adhesion and matrix degradation.IL-6 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with significant functions in the regulation of the immune system. As a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6 plays a pivotal role in host defense against pathogens...

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The Characteristics of Lung Cancer and the Importance of Early Diagnosis

Lung cancer is a form of cancer that starts in the tissues of the Lungs. Lung cancer starts due to an abnormal growth of the cells in the lungs. The abnormal cells cannot carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into functioning lung tissue. The growing abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body through the blood. All cells in the body contain DNA. Every time a mature cell divides into two new cells, The DNA is exactly replicated. The cells are exact copies of the original cells. This is how our body cells regenerate as the new replace the old. Cancer begins with a mutation in the DNA of a cell. DNA mutations can be caused aging or through environmental elements, such as cig...

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A Report on the Relation between Ultraviolet Radiation and Skin Cancer, the UV Index, and Sunscreen Protection

Ultraviolet Radiation and Skin Cancer Skin cancer is caused by exposure to the sun. Skin cancer can develop during long term exposure or during short periods of more intense sun exposure. Ultraviolet light in sunlight damages the DNA in our skin cells. Damage can happen years before cancer can develop so you may not even realize the harmful dangers your body is going through while you are exposed to the sun. In 2016 it is estimated that 13,283 new cases of melanoma skin cancer will be diagnosed in Australia. The estimate is roughly 7,847 males and 5,436 females. In 2012 the rate was forty-nine cases per 100,000 persons which is roughly sixty males and thirty-nine females. UVA rays and UVB rays both play a role in the development process of skin cancer. UVA rays pene...

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Cultural Beliefs and Health Behaviors towards Cancer Prevention and Cure Essay Sample

Cultural Beliefs and Health Behaviors towards Cancer Prevention and Cure Essay Sample Abstract Culture and health behavior towards cancer were observed to be significantly related to each other. Various beliefs held by different cultural groups provided the differences in their level of acceptance and perception towards cancer prevention and screening. Despite the medical advancements that had taken place, cancer screening and cure was not availed by all due to the barriers of cultural beliefs. Effective community-based interventions must be employed relevantly to the cultural biases of the individuals in order to address their risks of having cancer.INTRODUCTION             Culture was considered to be complex as well as multifaceted and more social workers and

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FlashCards for Students

Health and Welness Ch. 12 Cancer Prevention

Under normal conditions cells regularly produce ____________ to replace old warn-out cells and repair injuries? themeselves ( cell growth)What is Cell growth controlled by which is found in the nucleus of each cell? DNA and RNAWhat can lose their ability to regulate and control cell, forming a mass of tissue called tumor? NuceliThe body is made up of approximately how many cells? 100 trillion cellsWhen are tumors created? When the cell loses the ability to regulate growth.What are the 2 types of cancer? 1. Benign Tumor 2. Malignant TumorCancer begins with what type of alteration? DNAWhat contains genes that work together to repair and replace cells? DNAWhat are genes that initiate cell divison? OncogenesWhat are Genes that deactivate cell divisi...

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