High Blood Pressure and Hyperextension: Explore and Analyze Different Approaches to Maintaining a Healthy Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure and Hyperextension: Explore and Analyze Different Approaches to Maintaining a Healthy Blood Pressure

How to Control High Blood Pressure

“Many people have high blood pressure for years without knowing it.” -Author Unknown

The purpose of this research is to explore and analyze different approaches to maintaining a healthy blood pressure. High blood pressure is a condition that affects over 60 million Americans (Emedicinehealth, 1). The clinical name for high blood pressure is hypertension. Over time, hypertension causes added stress on the vascular and circulatory systems of the body. The effect is gradual changes to blood vessels in the back of the eye, abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, kidney failure, and brain damage (medterms, 1). Hypertension can afflict individuals because of their lifestyle habits, i.e. eating, lack of movement, emotional tendencies, i.e. exhibits constant “Type-A” personality behavior, inherited genetic predispositions, or combinations of all these. From the perspective of public health, heart disease affecting so many Americans means that health insurance policyholders are being forced to pay up as their risk to insurance companies increases as their health decreases (Spectrum Insurance Group, 1). This places enormous burdens on the commons in situations where the uninsured depend on hospital emergency rooms for treatment and wait until their conditions have become dire before seeking help. Instead of treating the condition with medication alone, actively playing sports and seeking outdoor exercise, consistently eating healthy, and avoiding smoking tobacco are sure fire ways to reduce the risk of high blood pressure.

Emedicinehealth. Glossary: High Blood Pressure. WebMD.com Accessed March 7, 2010 from http://www.emedicinehealh.com/high_blood_pressure/article_em.htm

Medterms. High Blood Pressure. MedicineNet Inc. Accessed March 7, 2010 from www.medterms.com

Spectrum Insurance Group. The Effect of High Blood Pressure on

7 Major Blood Tests and Cholesterol Myths

7 Major Blood Tests and Cholesterol Myths

            I do not question any information provided by the video. In fact, it is quite informative especially when it comes to the role played by cholesterol in the body. According to the speaker, cholesterol can be both useful and harmful to the body. One misleading myth about the substance is that high cholesterol levels in the body result in heart diseases. Although this can be true, it does not entirely cover the factors that lead heart conditions. For example, depending on the subject’s genetic make-up and how the individual’s cardiovascular functioning, high, medium, and low levels of cholesterol can result in heart complications. Secondly, despite the fact that there is a lot of anti-cholesterol campaign based on miss-information, the substance is quite useful in the body. Cholesterol is an essential life-supporting nutrient that acts as an anti-inflammatory, helps in hormone production, digestive processes, and structuring of the cell. In fact, reducing the levels of cholesterol can cause health problems.

            The class text supports various information included in the video. First, the role played by cholesterol and LDL in both critical bodily functions and the development of heart conditions. Secondly, the book confirms that genetic predispositions and other factors such as toxin intake, nutrition, and lifestyle choices contribute to the development of heart disease. Lastly, the class text is consistent with the importance of undergoing the various blood tests when diagnosing heart disease as listed in the video.

            The speaker identifies several factors, apart from cholesterol, that can lead to the subject developing heart disease. First, a poor diet that does not satisfy the nutritional needs of the body. Secondly, intake of toxic substances such as metal poisoning including lead, mercury, and cadmium that are now for their high toxicity levels. Lifestyle choices have also been listed among the factors that raise the risk of developing heart conditions. Lastly, the video identifies genetic make-up which comes into consideration when the other three elements are present.

Blood Case essay


Utilitarianism is essentially dependent on the utility theory which proclaims that a take action is good if this results in the emancipation of happiness or pleasure (especially if this leads to the greatest pleasure/happiness). The main mission of the health caution sector is to help save as many lives as possible. This entails avoiding the occurrence of disability or death under avoidable circumstances. Sole Levin’ h initiative of establishing typically the Plasma International with a mission of selling blood vessels with a price of $25 per pint is basically justified. In recent times, there were major occurrences regarding events in which major blood transfusions were necessary. Consider an incident just like the September 11 terrorist attacks in which there were major calamities; supposing there were no blood bank services to support the much needed transfusion services, a person can project the number of lives that might go unsaved because of a debt.

Moreover, Sole Levin’ s initiative is rationalized in the sense that blood transfusion services are usually essential in the face of increasing epidemiologic conditions, which warrant frequent blood exchanges. Patients fighting from serious blood circumstances like leukemia can be eposed to potential disability under extreme circumstances. Additionally , presently there are blood conditions when the recipient’ s blood is unable to support the basic blood clotting functions. Hence, inside such situations the actions of buying blood simply by a health institution on the stipulated price, for instance, as provided by Plasma International’ s $25 per pint is logical. This will be also supported by the truth that Plasma International plays an important role in storing blood to ensure constant source. This does not necessarily make blood vessels to become commodity of trade, but serves a deeper function of saving lives, which can be an important component for the human fraternity.

Kant’s Deontology

First, Kant’s deontology proclaims that “Act so that the maxim of your action becomes universal.” As a result whatever you are doing, whenever you do it, you want to everyone else to do it. Focusing on Sole Levin’s initiative to establish the Plasma International, as a body providing the much needed blood in health care institutions is morally correct. By the fact that the foundations of the body have been determined on the basis of international operations indicates the desire to proclaim the services as a human necessitty. Moreover, this shows the willingness to extend the services past transnational boundaries, which justifies the cost imposed of $25 per pint of blood.

Secondly, according to Kant’s deontology the essence of motive of an action determines its appropriateness under given circumstances. In Sole Levin’s case the need to satisfy the function of treating transcends other wrong functions. Hence the needed to treat affected patients, who are clients to the respective health institutions goes past the projected aim of profitability. By selling blood by $25 per pint of blood, the founder of Plasma International is merely justifying the operational costs and other logistical functions that entail storing the blood, equipment for handling the blood, and service provision. These functions are essentially acting as a support element for the major functions of Plasma international, which is to avail blood to health institutions at the time of need, which significantly satisfies the element of humanity.

Difference Principles (Rawls theory) say any inequality in society Example: Wal-Mart: does Wal-Mart present created disadvantages (the location is not always in good place) do those disadvantages is convenient to the community, yes.

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Blood Transfusion essay


Blood transfusion has been the main process used during surgeries and other critical conditions involving loss of blood. However, the method is associated with high risks, necessitating the need for an alternative. Technically, with the recent technology it is nearly impossible to substitute the entire function of the blood. However, scientists have concentrated all their efforts on finding the substitutes of RBC in terms of finding an effective way of replacing the oxygen-carrying role of blood. This would be very significant in certain situation especially during conducting critical surgeries that may involve drastic loss of blood that may lead to death. Currently, scientists have managed to come up with two kinds of blood substitute which are being tested in the clinical trial (Levy 3). First substitute depends on a certain substance known as perfourocarbons while the other option involves using hemoglobin in absence of Red blood cells. Although the methods may prove expensive, they may be very important and more reliable than blood transfusion especially during surgery in reducing the number of deaths.

Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is a good ordinary method used to put blood into one’ s blood vessels through 4 (IV) apparatus (Lieberman). Typically, blood transfusion is typically the current method used to restore blood lost either in a surgery process or other situations that may possibly involve massive loss associated with blood.

Methods of blood transfusion

Direct transfusion

This action involves connecting donor’ s artery with the recipient’ h vein through anastomosis (British Committee for Standards found in Haematology (BSCH). This method tends to be difficult mainly since from the tiny nature regarding the donor’ s artery. Besides, it truly is associated along with high risk of obturation taking place in the particular donor’ s artery.

Indirect transfusion

Indirect transfusion takes place mainly in two ways. First method involves incorporation of anticoagulant into the blood vessels while transfusing. One other approach is known as entire blood transfusion which entails transfusing blood to the recipient from the subscriber without mixing it along with any chemical. Whole blood vessels transfusion can be done using syringe or kimpson’ s tube. According to (Lacroix et al 1213) Whole blood transfusion has a high risk regarding blood clotting during transfusion, especially if delayed.

Process of blood transfusion

After blood has been donated, it has to undergo several tests to determine its suitability for transfusion in to a patient’s blood stream. According to The whole procedure involves testing for Pathogens, blood group compatibility and disintegration of blood. When donated blood is received, it is initially screened for various things including HIV viruses, Chagas disease, WNV and Hepatitis B and C among others (Stainsby et al. 639). Blood platelets are also tested for any bacterial infections.  After testing for any disease carrying pathogens, the blood is then tested for the Rhesus factor (Rh), where it will be identified as either positive or negative.  According to Alice et al., before a blood transfusion is done on a patient, the blood recipient’s blood group has to be determined first to know the appropriate blood to transfuse. Also, the Antibodies in the blood to be transfused have to be tested to avoid cases of blood clotting. In this respect, if the recipient tests positive for the antibodies, then the blood to be transfused should be antigen negative.

The shelf life of blood depends on whether the blood haas been has been disintegrated into its elements or if is still in its original state.  Whole blood transfusion procedure has a shorter shelf life compared to when it is disintegrated into its constituents. When refrigerated, whole blood can last up to a maximum of 35days. However, if blood is disintegrated into its constituents, red blood cells last up to 42days, platelets up to 5days under the conditions of room temperature, plasma and cryoprecipitate AHF last up to 1year when frozen (Lederer). However, the shelf life of whole blood and red blood cells will also vary depending on the type of anticoagulant used.

                        Advantages of blood substitutes (PFCS and HBOCs)

  • PFCs have a potential to help in cancer treatment due to their ability to penetrate the tumor cells.
  • They have a longer shelf life at room temperature than the normal red blood cells.
  • The usually carry oxygen through red blood cells and plasma while the normal blood use red blood cells only for oxygen transport.
  • HBOC’s are compatible with any blood type since they do not react to antibodies; they also start oxygen transport immediately.

                          Disadvantages of using blood substitutes (PFCs and HBOCs)

  • They are not very easily available.
  • They lower the level of platelets due to opsonization.
  • They have some undesirable vascoactive properties such as excess supply of in the peripheral tissue, excess uptake of nitric oxide etc.

Very expensive. i.e. they cost over 500 dollars

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