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Sickle cell disease -one of the most common inherited blood disorders

Genetic disorders are (usually) rare disease not caused by viruses or other pathogens, but rather from human genetics itself. These disorders are sometimes inherited, like cystic fibrosis, and other times caused by mutations, like Down’s syndrome. Sickle cell is a (inherited) genetic disorder and causes blood cells to shaped like sickles (hence the name), or crescent-shaped blades, to form and due to this, blood cells can’t carry oxygen as well as normal blood cells. Sickle cell disease is caused by mutations due to the deletion of parts of chromosome number 11. This trait is recessive and can be passed on from parent to child. Although the sickle cell disease is harmful mutation due to health complications such as anemia, damage to the spleen, etc., it is also a bene...

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The ABO blood group system

In the ABO blood group system, the red blood cells in humans have molecular differences from individual to individual. The differences are systematic and can be characterized according to a system of four different hereditary types; A, B, AB and O. These types together form the blood grouping system, ABO. The differences in these four hereditary blood types are due to the four types having different variants or combinations of antigens. In the ABO group the antigens are carbohydrate chains in the membrane on the surface of the red blood cells. Each human individual has antibodies to the variants that it does not have. The carbohydrate chains are available in two main groups, A and B. Humans with blood type A, have type A carbohydrate chains. Humans with blood type B h...

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Blood doping and athletes

It is illegal for athletes to take steroids or any other type of drugs, so they are relying on blood doping. Right before an event, an athlete will blood dope. By doing that they take a substance to enhance the red blood blood cell count. As the erythrocytes go up the oxygen is easily transported to the muscle making the performance of the athlete better. The main type of blood doping uses are synthetic oxygen carriers, blood transfusions, and erythropoietin (EPO). Purified proteins or chemicals having the ability to carry oxygen are known as synthetic oxygen carriers. Some examples of them are haemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Doing this brings the risk of cardiovascular disease. Synthetic oxygen carriers are mainly used in emergency...

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Blood circulation in the human body

Although the heart plays one of the biggest roles in the circulatory system, the rest of the system is also very important as it is what transports blood to and from the heart to keep the body alive. Blood is transported throughout the body by blood vessels. Blood vessels are complex structures but can be simplified quite significantly. The two main components of blood vessels are the arteries and the veins. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, while veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart. Other blood vessels found in the circulatory system are arterioles and venules. Arterioles are blood vessel that branch off arteries and lead to capillaries. Venules are similar to arterioles but branch off veins and also lead to capillaries. Finally, capillaries ...

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The Negative Influence of Smoking on Blood Pressure and the Importance of Measuring Blood Pressure

Laura finds Lamont’s blood pressure to be high. His systolic and diastolic pressures are above the normal range of 120/80. A blood pressure range of 156/94 would indicate symptoms of stage 1 hypertension. Thus Laura would advise Mr. Lamont to adopt a healthy living style to improve his blood pressure level (Meenakshisundaram, Sethilkumaran, Grootveld, & Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, 2013). Mr. Lamont’s oral temperatures are within the normal range at 99.8o. A slight elevation in his body temperature, to within 1o F of the normal oral temperature, could have been caused by the day temperatures. The normal oral temperature for adults is 98.6o F, which is equivalent to 37o C. Mr. Lamont’s temperature, therefore, does not indicate any signs of infect...

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Breathing Rates and Influence on One’s Blood Pressure

Many different factors can influence blood pressure such as what you eat or how much physical activity you participate in each day. This experiment is to see how breathing rates affect blood pressure so people can become conscious of how they breathe throughout the day and how it is affecting their blood pressure- making it higher or lower. We tested 3 different breathing rates: fast, normal, and slow to see how they affect blood pressure. Both of the independent variables (fast and slow breathing rates) considerably lowered blood pressure. Introduction Having a lower blood pressure is important in preventing heart attacks and strokes. The usual way doctors recommend lowering blood pressure is through diet and exercise but when those methods don’t work, prescription ...

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Breathing Rates and Influence on One's Blood Pressure

Many different factors can influence blood pressure such as what you eat or how much physical activity you participate in each day. This experiment is to see how breathing rates affect blood pressure so people can become conscious of how they breathe throughout the day and how it is affecting their blood pressure- making it higher or lower. We tested 3 different breathing rates: fast, normal, and slow to see how they affect blood pressure. Both of the independent variables (fast and slow breathing rates) considerably lowered blood pressure. Introduction Having a lower blood pressure is important in preventing heart attacks and strokes. The usual way doctors recommend lowering blood pressure is through diet and exercise but when those methods don’t work, prescription pi...

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The Risks of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is unlike any other disease. It can be extremely serious, but normally does not affect how you feel day to day. It is often referred to as “the silent killer”(1), because there are no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. People with high blood pressure, in most cases, are unaware they have it unless they have their blood pressure measured. This condition in the unaware person may be slowly causing serious damage and putting them at risk of sudden death from stroke or heart disease. “Blood pressure”(2) is the force with which your heart pumps blood through the body. Occasional increases in blood pressure levels are not unusual. Examples may include physical activities that make your heartbeat faster and more powerful, and this ca...

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ABO Blood Group: Definition, Features and Principles

The human body consists of various blood groups with one important one being the ABO blood group, which aids in blood transfusions. The ABO blood group was discovered during the years of 1900 and 1901 at the University of Vienna by Karl Landsteiner when he was trying to learn why some blood transfusions cause death and why some can save patients. There are four genotypes that are associated with the ABO blood group and they are the A blood type, the B blood type, the AB blood type, and the O blood type and along with that there are two antigens and two antibodies that are responsible for each ABO blood type. For example, the A blood type has the A antigen and the anti-B antibody, but doesn’t have the A antigen and the anti A antibody. The B blood type has the B antigen ...

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Different types of white blood cells

The hydrogen ions then combine with hemoglobin and the bicarbonate ions go into the plasma. Seventy percent of the CO2 is removed in this way. Seven percent of the CO2 is dissolved in the plasma. The remaining 23 percent of the CO2 combines directly with hemoglobin and then is released into the lungs. Carbonic Anhydrase: Besides carrying oxygen to the cells of the body, the RBCs help to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. Carbon dioxide is formed in the cells as a byproduct of many chemical reactions. It enters the blood in the capillaries and is brought back to the lungs and released there and then exhaled as we breathe. RBCs contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which helps the reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to occur 5,000 times faster...

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