b. Body weight (kg) x % dehydration as a decimal = deficit in L
(*500mL = 1lb)
Patient Na+ = 190mEq/L, wt. 20kg, LRS (Na+ 130mEq/L), fluid rate 100mL/hr
130 – 190 /(0.6 x 20) + 1 = 4.6mEq/L
Safe fluid choice and rate. A liter bag would last 10 hours and the Na+ can safely be adjusted by 5mEq.
3.) Respiratory rates
4.) Blood pressure
2.) Pulse- Normal = 60-100
3.) Respiratory rates- Normal = 14-20
Diastolic= 80-89 mmHg
Systolic= 140-159 mmHg
Diastolic = 90-99 mmHg
Systolic= >160 mmHg
Diastolic= >100 mmHg
-Older adults (70 or over)- 96.8*F
1st Year: 99.1*F
4th Year: 99.4*F
5th Year: 98.6*F
12th Year: 98.0*F
2.) Hyperthermia values OVER 105.8*F
3.) Hypothermia values BELOW 96.0*F
2.) Temporary increase (excercise)
3.) Pathologic states (infection)
4.) Decrease (starvation)
3.) Mercury in glass: oral – blue tip; rectal – red tip
4.) Disposable single-use chemical strip
– Treat as a medical emergency
– Check possible temp. cause, review history, postpone oral care
-The result of the alternate expansion and contraction of an artery as a wave of clood is forced out from the heart
In utero – 150 bpm
At birth – 130 bpm
2nd year- 105 bpm
4th year- 90 bpm
10th year- 70 bpm
-Decreased pulse: Sleep, depressants, fasting
-Emergency situations: Heart failure, cardiac arrest
-Temporal artery/facial artery
-Variations may be shown in rate, rhythm, depth, & quality
**A respiration is one breath taken in and let out!**
1st year- 30/min
2nd year- 25/min
8th year- 20/min
15th year- 18/min
-Decreased respiration: sleep, pulmonary insufficiency
-Emergency situations: heart problems
5.) Position of patient
2.) Diastolic- Lowest pressure= Ventricular relaxation
3.) Pulse pressure- difference b/w systolic and diastolic pressures= less than 40 mmHg
** 120/80 mmHg
2.) Peripheral resistance
3.) Volume of blood in the circulatory system
-Consists of inflatable cuff, 2 tubes: 1 connected to pressure hand control bulb and other to pressure gauge
-Nonelastic material w/velcro overlap
*Diameter of arm, not age of patient, determines the
size of the cuff selected*
2.) Mercury Manometer
-Gauges are marked w/long lines at each 10 mmHg
**When cuff is too narrow, bp is too high; when cuff is too wide, bp is too low**
1.) Types of endpieces: bell-shaped or flat
2.) Care of earpieces: clean by rubbing
2.) Apply cuff
3.) Locate radial pulse
4.) Position stethoscope endpiece- in antecubital fossa
5.) Inflate cuff- inflate until radial pulse stops, & pump 20/30 mmHg beyond where pulse was no longer felt
—> Max. Inflation Level (MIL)
6.) Deflate cuff gradually- 2 to 3 mm per second, systole: (1st sound) “tap tap”
7.) Repeat for confirmation- wait 2-3 mins
8.) Record- in fraction
-Recc. for persons at increased risk for hypertension = rechecked w/in 1 year
increase number of red blood cells
provide plasma clotting factors
2.total for weighed sponges
3.anesthesia estimate for drapes
4.amount of fluid in suction bottle
1g=1ml of of blood
1 lap= 20g
– Suction bottles
– Irrigation fluid
– Within an organ removed
– In a horse trailer, kennel, etc.
(PCV of suction jar/pre-op PCV of patient) x volume of jar = estimated ml of blood in suction jar
– Decrease in PCV, TP, hemoglobin
– Decrease in urine output
– Increase in heart rate (ESPECIALLY IN DOGS)
– Increase in vasoconstriction
– Decreased tissue perfusion and oxygenation
– Decreased ET CO2
– PCV is less than or equal to 20%
– Plasma protein is less than 3.5 g/dl
– Hemoglobin is less than 7-10 g/dl
– CONSIDER BASED ON CLINICAL STATUS OF PATIENT
– Hypovolemic shock: pale MM, prolonged CRT, increased HR and RR, decreased arterial BP, decreased CVP
– What is the cause?
– Is there potential for more blood loss?
– How did the patient respond to other supportive therapies?
– What is the status of the patient (cardiopulmonary, renal, etc.)?
As hematocrit increases, so does blood viscosity, which may not be desirable in a patient with poor tissue perfusion from acute hemorrhage/shock.
– 60-80 ml/kg
– Monitor for hemodilution (PCV, TP, BP)
– Monitor clinical status (CV function, perfusion, BP, HR, etc.)
– Anesthetic drugs
– Over ventilating
– Consider an IV bolus of colloid (several times to expand IV volume w/less risk of peripheral edema)
**MONITOR PATIENT AND REASSESS
– Improved systemic BP
– Increased urine output
– Normal central venous pressure
– Pink MM
– Increased expired CO2 (indicates improved perfusion/cardiac output)
Acute hypersensitivity reaction due to histamine release usually within the first 45 minutes
– +/- tachycardia and urticaria
– Viral, bacterial contamination
– Cardiac overload
– Citrate toxicity (hypocalcemia)
– Hyperkalemia (old, stored blood)
– Cats (wrong type blood given — A vs. B)
– Cross-match (especially if previous transfusion, ALL cats)
– Store blood properly
– May pre-treat w/diphenhydramine or glucocorticoids
AB antigen blood group system; A, B, or AB
A positive: MOST cats
B positive: SOME cats; 95% of B cats possess IgM anti-A
If A blood is transfused into B cats, rapid destruction results in severe clinical reactions; hypotension, apnea, AV-block within a few minutes.
Universal donor: DEA 1.1; safer to use in a dog that has never been transfused
Ideally, you should know the blood type and do a cross-match.
Increased risk of hemolytic disease with subsequent transfusions.
Unlike finger pricking, the traditional method of monitoring levels of the blood sugar glucose, the new patch detects the levels of glucose in a person’s sweat. Research has shown that glucose level in sweat accurately reflect glucose levels in the blood.
The researchers also showed that the patch can deliver the diabetes drug metformin through the skin and that it can reduce high blood glucose levels.
The researchers are very interested in making the patch commercially available, and are talking about it with several companies in Korea, said study co-author Hyunjae Lee, of the Institute for Basic Science in Seoul, South Korea.
But more research is needed before the patch can be used in people with diabetes, the researchers said. Scientists have been looking for a noninvasive way to monitor the levels of glucose, in people with diabetes, because finger pricking can be painful and some patients are unwilling to do it, the researchers said.
To make the new patch, the researchers combined gold particles and grapheme a type of material that shows promise for use in wearable electronics because it is flexible, and can be transparent, soft and very thin, the researchers said.
A photo of the diabetes patch partially peeled off from the user’s skin. The patch consists of wearable sensors that detect the levels of glucose in sweat, as well as an integrated system with micro-needles that deliver the glucose-regulating drug metformin. When the sensors detect a high level of glucose in the sweat, heaters embedded in the patch prompt the micro-needles to release the drug and lower the glucose level.
In this project, our aim is to detect the glucose level of the individual using the thermal images of the palm. Here we use Mid infra-red rays to detect the glucose level instead of Near infra-red rays because although near infra-red light is not blocked by water making it suitable for human body, it interacts with a number of acids and chemicals in the skin which makes it unsuitable for detecting glucose level.
In the most basic of terms, thermal imaging allows you to see an object’s heat radiating off itself. Thermal cameras more or less record the temperature of various objects in frame, and then assign each temperature a shade of color, which lets you see how much heat its radiating compared to objects around it.
TEMPERATURE COLOUR IN THERMAL IMAGE
Colder Blue, Purple, Green
Warmer Red, Orange, Yellow
Thermal cameras detect temperature by recognizing and capturing different levels of infrared light. This light is invisible to the naked eye, but can be felt as heat if the intensity is high enough.
All objects emit some kind of infrared radiation, and it’s one of the ways that heat is transferred. If you hold your hand over some hot coals on the grill, those coals are emitting a ton of infrared radiation, and the heat is transferred to your hand. Furthermore, only about half of the sun’s energy is given off as visible light, the rest is a mix of ultraviolet and infrared light.
The hotter an object is, the more infrared radiation is produced. Thermal cameras can see this radiation and convert it to an image that we can see with our eyes. Inside the thermal camera, there are a bunch of tiny measuring devices that capture infrared radiation, called microbolometer records the temperature and then assigns that pixel to an appropriate color.
As you might have guessed, this is why most thermal cameras have an extremely low resolution compared to modern TVs and other displays. Most thermal cameras rely on longer wavelength of infrared, whereas typical night vision security camera captures shorter wavelength of infrared. Thermal compression the other hand, have the ability to capture longer wavelengths of infrared, allowing to detect heat.
Recent research as an uncovered a link between insulin and temperature. Insulin seems to work as an internal thermostat, helping to raise core body temperature by triggering the burning of “brown fats” cells. Many type1 diabetes have a low core body temperature that is below 97degree is one of the earlier signs of the disease whereas the type2diabetes warm a body rather than cooling it.
Since, body temperature depends on the level of glucose in the body it is possible for us to detect the sugar level using thermal camera which produce images depending on the temperature.
After selecting the required images for analysis, four regions of interest were identified on the acquired images. A series of tests are need to done using thermal camera. After comparing images, the approximate glucose level can be detected.
Detecting the glucose level using thermal image can bring new revolution in the sugar level detection. In the initial stage, invasive methods are used which can be banded by non-invasive methods like patch methods, ray passing methods etc. In this method, we use thermal images to detect the sugar level which makes the sugar patients free from fringe pricking method. Initially only the near infrared rays are used to detect the sugar level, in this we use middle infrared rays because it gives accurate result than using near infrared rays. The idea presented here is only the outline of the concept, showing that it is possible that the glucose can be measured using the thermal image.