local anesthesia + alcohol + recovery

local anesthesia lec

Cardiotoxicity rescue
intravenous lipid emulsion

Bupivacaine toxicity
cardio toxicity

prilocaine toxicity
Large doses of prilocaine yield o-toluidine, which oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Treat with I.V. methylene blue or vit. C.

Alcohol Lec

Lidocaine toxicity
associated with cauda equina syndrome

Drugs used in chronic alcoholism
Naltrexone, Acamprosate, Disulfiram

Drugs used for acute ethanol withdrawal:
Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, oxazepam

Drugs used in acute methanol or ethylene glycol toxicitiy:
Fomepizole and ethanol.

Competitive inhibitor of NMDA receptors

Blocks Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

blocks alcohol dehydrogenase

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist
Reduces symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and shows effects on smoking cessation
Advantages: no exposure to nicotine
Disadvantages: Side effects

partial nicotine agonist

short acting give with epinephrin

watch out for CNS excitation with lidocaine use with infiltrative anesthesia

prevent/stop seizure
benzodiazepine (diazepam) I.V.
Also, small doses of short-acting barbiturates (thiopental IV)
neuromuscular blocking, short acting (succinylcholine, I.V.)

The Effects Of Drugs And Alcohol On Our Youths Essay Sample

The Effects Of Drugs And Alcohol On Our Youths Essay Sample

            It is a well known fact that the substance abuse of alcohol and drugs has a major and significant role in the lives of thousands of adolescents. It is also fairly known that the presence of such abuse is vastly increasing as our years progress. Unfortunately, the reality that we must be forced to face is that each day, not only do our youths experiment and become addicted to drugs, they die from it! We, as human beings are forced to open our eyes to the truth that substance abuse is a major part of all of ours lives, whether it be directly or indirectly. Some way or the other, we all are effected by this travesty.

            Understanding the true, emotionally harming as well as physically harming effects of drugs on our youth is easier said than done. The truth is, until we see with our own eyes what exactly becomes of our children when they embrace the world of drugs and violence, we are still ignorant to the seriousness of the entire issue. Sadly, however,  many mothers and parents are forced to realize the severity of this issue when their own children become effected by it. The truly sad part of the matter is the question of whether or not they would’ve ever stopped to notice and care if they were not directly effected.

            When most people think of the seriousness of the effects of drugs on our youth, what they fail to realize is that alcohol has just as much if not more of a significant and devastating impact on our children as drugs do. In fact, statistics show that alcohol is the number one drug of choice for our Nation’s youth.

            Perhaps one of the most damaging risks of alcohol abuse is brain related. Research has shown that youths and adolescents who abuse alcohol may remember at least 10% less of what they’d remember if they did not drink. Considering the fact that the most vitals stages in mental development are during childhood, substance and alcohol abuse at such an early stage in live can be critical, resulting in long term and permanent damage.

            Statistics have also indicated that the chances of becoming dependent on alcohol are far greater for those who’ve started drinking before the age of 14 over individuals who began drinking in adulthood.  Another devastatingly sad and all too real statistic is that nearly 20% of 8th graders have been drunk at least once in their short lives. And an astonishing 41% of 10th graders have also been drunk at least one time.

            The question that we must ask ourselves as parents, peers, and relatives is how can we prevent this pandemic of alcohol abuse from ruining the lives of our very own loved youths. Many people believe that knowledge is the best prevention. By educating our children on the hazardous and devastating effects of alcohol and drug abuse, we are opening their minds to the severity of experimenting with such substances. Without true understanding of the risks that are before them, adolescents are more likely to wonder and be curious about such drugs. We must teach and educate them on the true seriousness of alcohol and drug consumption in order to better their futures, or at least put effort into ensuring they will even have a future.