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Pender’s Health Promotion Model
Constructed from *expectancy-value theory* and *social cognitive theory* using a nursing perspective

Purpose: assist nurses in understanding *major determinants of health* behaviors as a basis for behavioral counselling to promote healthy lifestyles

Major Concepts: Individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes

Evolution of a Middle Range Theory
Interaction Model of Client Behavior
Health Belief Model

Health Promotion Model (original) 1982

Health Promotion Model (Revised) 2002

Key Assumptions & Propositions
-Which ones are particularly meaningful to you or resonate with your personal beliefs and experiences?

-Health promotion is motivated by the desire to enhance well-being and to actualize human potential
-Complex processes motivate individuals to engage in behaviors directed towards health enhancement
-Patients/clients play an active role in managing health behaviors by modifying the environmental context
-Nurses can exert an influence on patients that can last throughout their lives

Interventions for Health Behavior Change
-Raising Consciousness
-Reevaluating the Self
-Promoting Self-efficacy
-Enhancing the benefits of change
-Modifying the environment
-Managing the Barriers to change

-Tailoring Behavior change interventions …creating individualized communication to meet the unique needs of the individual

“patients will act in their own best interest, changing dangerous behaviors and increasing healthy practices if they have the knowledge, tools, and incentives to do so” (Pender et al., 2002).

Promoting Prevention and Early Recognition of Malignant Melanoma
Purpose: to use the Pender Health promotion Model to examine the contributing factors, facilitators and barriers to surveillance and sun-protective behaviors.

Implications for Patients and primary health care providers (doctors, NPs and RNs)

Health promotion in nurses: Is there a healthy nurse in the house?
Purpose: to examine health-promoting lifestyle behaviors of acute care nurses using Pender’s HPM
Challenges: stress management, physical activity
Supports need for development of holistic nursing interventions to promote self-care
Strategies include educational/experiential classes in holistic nursing; individualized unit-based activities fostering stress management, such as massage, reflexology, and imagery; and development of an employee wellness program.
Application of Theory to Practice
“When nursing theory is used to guide clinical thinking and decision making, nurses can understand what they do and why, and they are able to clarify this for other health professionals” (Penz & Bassendowski, 2006).
Critique of Pender’s HPM
-Clarity
>HP behavior is influenced by individual characteristics and behavior specific cognitions and affect(emotion) that result in a commitment to action

-Simplicity
>Focuses on individual factors and socio-environmental factors that impact health promotion behaviors
-Generality
-Importance
-Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile
-Research…http://nolapender.weebly.com/empirical-testing.html

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Post Author: Arnold

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