Pharmacology chapters 7 & 8

dietary supplement
any product that is taken by mouth that contains an ingredient intended to supplement a diet, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, etc.

herbal medicine
the practice of using herbs to heal

herbs
plant components including bark, roots, leaves, seeds, flowers and fruit of trees, shrubs and woody vines, and extracts

iatrogenic effects
unintented adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a prescriber or other health care professional by a specific treatment

alternative medicine
therapies traditionally not emphasized in the western medical schools but popular with many patients
ex: chiropractic, reflexology

complementary medicine
alternative medicine when used simultaneoulsy with standard western medicine

conventional medicine
the practice of medicine as taught in western medical schools

legend drugs
medications that are not legally available without a prescription

over the counter (OTC) drugs
medications that are legally available without a prescription

chamomile
increased risk for bleeding with anticoagulants

cranberry
decreased elimination of many drugs that are renally excreted

echinacea
possible interference with or counter action to immunosuppressant drugs

evening primrose
possible interaction with antipsychotic drugs

garlic
possible interference with hypoglycemic therapy

ginger root
possible interference with cardiac, anti-diabetic or anticoagulant drugs

grapefruit
-decreases metabolism of erectile dysfunction, estrogens, & some psychotherapeutic drugs
-increases risk of toxicity of immunosuppressants
-increases the intensity and duration of effects of caffine

hawthorn
may lead to toxic levels of cardiac glycosides

kava
may increase the effect of barbiturates and alcohol

saw palametto
may change the effects of oral contraceptive drugs

valerian
increases central nervous system depresssion if used with sedatives

criteria for over the counter status
-indication for use
-safety profile
-practicality for OTC use

learning
the acquisiton of knowledge or skill

affective domain
behavior conduct that expresses feelings, needs, beliefs, values, and opinions

cognitive domain
involved in the learning and storage of basic knowledge. It is the thinking portion of the learning process and incorporates a person’s previous experiences and perceptions.

psychomotor domain
involved in the learning of a new procedure or skill

teaching
a system of directed and deliberate actions intended to induce learning.

patient teaching tips
-teaching needs to be focused on affective, cognitive or psychomotor domain or a combination of all three.
-patient teaching goals should involve patient and caregiver
-keep teaching on a level that is most meaningful to patient
-follow, teach and learning principles when developing and implementing patient education

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