Penn Foster Vet Tech Anatomy & Physiology

The nervous system is the body’s
control center

The central nervous system consists of
brain and spinal cord and their associated structures

the peripheral nervous system is comprised of
the nerves traveling from the brain or spinal cord to the target organs and back

the somatic nervous system carries out
conscious activities, such as walking, eating and so on

the autonomic nervous system perfroms functions that
don’t require conscious thought, such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate

the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system is the
neuron, or nerve cell

2 important types of neurons are
sensory neurons and motor neurons

sensory neurons carry signals of
touch, taste, etc. to the brain

motor neurons carry instructions from
the brain to the muscles, causing them to move.

the primary purpose of a neuron is to
transmit an electrical signal that acts either to signal other neurons or to cause a change in a target organ, such as a muscle or gland

depolarization is
the change in membrane potential that occurs when a nerve is stimulated

repolarization is
the reestablishment of normal resting membrane potential

some of the more important neurotransmitters include the following:
acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, enkephalins, serotonin

reflexes
involuntary motor movements initiated by specific sensory input

recptors
nerve endings that detect changes in the environment

gustatory sense
sense of taste

olfactory sense
sense of smell

auditory sense
sense of hearing

the third eyelid found in some species is referred to by which name
nictitating membrane

which receptors are involved with the proprioception sense
stretch receptors in the muscles, tendons and ligaments

ipsilateral reflex refers to
reflex where the stimulus and response are both on the same side of the body

what is the test for a proprioception deficit
flip over a foot while the animal is standing and see if the animal corrects the position

what is true of gray matter
it makes up the oter tissue layer in the brain

which causes the greatest degree of light refraction in the eye
cornea

rotation of the head is detected primarily by the
semicircular canals

the _____connects the two halves of the brain
corpus callosum

which stucture contains the muscles that adjust the shape of the lens of the eye
ciliary body

the reflective tapetum lucidum is formed on the
choroid

what is a visceral sense
thirst

norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine belong to a group of neurotransmitters known as
catecholamines

calls that support neurons structurally and functionally are called
neuroglia

what supplies a rich network of blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the superficial tissues of the brain and spinal cord
meninges

a reflex arc commonly used to assess the depth of anesthesia is the ______reflex
pupillary light

nociceptors are not found in which organ
brain

the area of the brain through which sensory signals pass to the cerebrum is called the
thalamus

what is the correct pathway by which sound is transmitted between the ossicles of the middle ear
malleus, incus, stapes

central temperature receptors that monitor the body’s internal termperature are located within which structure of the brain
hypothalamus

the tactile sense is the sense of
touch

the function of mucus in the nasal cavities is to
dissolve odor molecules for detection by the receptor cells

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