Child’s weight almost triples.
Child grows an average of 5 cm (2 inches) per year.
Few physical differences are apparent among children of different genders at the end of middle childhood.
Fat gradually increases, which contributes to child’s heavier appearance.
Peer approval is not yet a motivating power.
A developing sense of initiative is very important.
Motivation comes from extrinsic rather than intrinsic sources.
Feelings of inferiority or lack of worth can be derived from children themselves or from the environment.
Have developed the ability to reason abstractly
Become capable of scientific reasoning and formal logic
Progress from making judgments based on what they reason to making judgments based on what they see
Have the ability to place things in a logical order, to group and sort, and to hold a concept in their minds while making decisions based on that concept
4. In Piaget’s stage of concrete operations, children have the ability to group and sort and make conceptual decisions.
1. Children cannot reason abstractly until late adolescence.
2. Scientific reasoning and formal logic are skills of adolescents.
3. Progressing from making judgments based on what school-age children reason to making judgments based on what they see is not a developmental skill.
The standards of behavior now come from within themselves.
They do not yet experience a sense of guilt when they misbehave.
They know the rules and behaviors expected of them but do not understand the reasons behind them.
They no longer interpret accidents and misfortunes as punishment for misdeeds.
Behavior that encourages bullying and sexism
Behavior that reinforces poor peer relationships
Characteristic of social development of this age
Characteristic of children who are later at risk for membership in gangs
Can have a lasting effect on children.
is not a significant threat to self-concept.
is rarely based on anything that is concrete.
is usually ignored by the child who is being teased.
Punish children who fail to perform adequately.
Help children as much as possible with their homework.
Communicate with teachers if there appears to be a problem.
Accept responsibility for children’s successes and failures.
night terrors that awaken the child.
delaying tactics because they do not wish to go to bed.
somatic illness that awakens the child.
increasing need for sleep time compared with adolescents.
Organized sports such as soccer are not appropriate at this age.
Competition is detrimental to the establishment of a positive self-image.
Sports participation is encouraged if the type of sport is appropriate to the child’s abilities.
Girls should compete only against girls because at this age boys are larger and have more muscle mass.
Teach how to floss teeth properly.
Recommend toothbrush with hard nylon bristles.
Emphasize importance of brushing before bedtime.
Recommend nonfluoridated toothpaste approved by the American Dental Association.