or might try
1st gen cephalosporins (cephalexin)
Novel MOA of mupirocin: inhibits bacterial protein and RNA synthesis by reversibly and specifically binding to bacterial isoleucyl transfer-RNA synthetase; does not demonstrate cross-resistance with other classes. Bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bactericidal at high concentrations
Numbness of the hands
Increase the rifampin dose.
Increase the oral contraceptive dose.
Allow 2 hr between taking the two drugs.
Use additional contraception.
Dark brown urine
Level of consciousness
Wait 1 hr and contact the provider if there is no improvement.
Skip today’s dose of amoxicillin and resume taking the drug tomorrow.
Call emergency services immediately.
Take an NSAID to reduce the skin and airway inflammation.
Swish the suspension in the mouth before swallowing it.
Rinse the mouth immediately with water.
Drink the suspension with a straw.
Use a cotton-tipped applicator to dab the mouth lesions with the suspension.
Tingling in the hands and feet
Take an antacid at least 2 hr after taking the drug.
Take the drug with a cup of coffee.
Take an iron supplement with the drug.
Drink 8 oz of milk with the drug.
Small bowel obstruction
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin)
Wear sunglasses outdoors.
Take the drug with an antacid.
Take the drug with lemonade.
Take the drug with food.
Slow the cefotetan infusion.
Request a prescription for another antibiotic.
Stop the cefotetan infusion.
Rationale: Large amounts of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of verapamil by inhibiting its metabolism. The excess amount of drug can intensify otherwise therapeutic effects like hypotension, causing serious risks for syncope and dizziness.
Rationale: Severe depression and an increased risk for suicide are adverse effects of adrenergic neuron blockers, such as reserpine. These effects can persist after patients stop taking these drugs. These adverse effects develop because of the depletion of serotonin and norepinephrine.
Rationale: In particularly large amounts can cause toxicity of potassium channel blockers, such as amiodarone.
Rationale: It can cause myopathy or pain in muscles and joints that can progress to rhabdomyolysis. With this rare but serious side effect, muscle protein breaks down and its excretion causes kidney damage.
Rationale: Eplerenone, an aldosterone antagonist, can cause hyperkalemia. Many salt substitutes contain significant amounts of potassium. Patients who take the drug should not use salt substitutes that contain potassium.
Rationale: A systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome can develop with hydralazine, a direct-acting vasodilator. Manifestations include facial rash, joint pain, fever, nephritis, and pericarditis. High doses make it more likely. Fluid retention and edema can also develop.
Rationale: Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, can cause reflex tachycardia, an adverse effect that can worsen angina pain because it increases cardiac oxygen demand.
Rationale: Fab antibody fragments, also called Digoxin Immune Fab, binds to digoxin and blocks its action.
Rationale: Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is contraindicated for patients who have had an allergic reaction to phosphodiesterase inhibitors and for patients who have an acute myocardial infarction and aortic or pulmonary valve disorders.
Rationale: This is a poor choice because of its risk for serious adverse effects, including cardiotoxicity and arterial embolism.
Rationale: Atenolol, a beta1 adrenergic blocking agent, can cause bradycardia and orthostatic hypotension. Health care professionals should withhold the drug for an apical pulse rate slower than 60/min and notify the primary care provider.
Rationale: This medication is a high-ceiling loop diuretic similar in actions and effects to furosemide (Lasix), can cause ototoxicity, which can lead to permanent hearing loss.
Rationale: Abruptly discontinuing clonidine, a centrally acting alpha2 agonist, can cause rebound hypertension. The drug’s target receptors are in the CNS. By stimulating these receptors, sympathetic outflow to the peripheral blood vessels decreases. Thus, the blood vessesls dilate and the heart rate slows. Stopping drug therapy causes rebound outflow fro the SNS and a sudden and significant rise in blood pressure that can lead to a hypertensive crisis.
Rationale: Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, can cause reflex tachycardia, an adverse effect that increases cardiac oxygen demand. Administering a beta-adrenergic blocker, such as propranolol, will minimize the adverse effects.
Rationale: Antacids and vitamin C can decrease absorption of propranolol, a beta adrenergic blocker. Patients should avoid taking these OTC preparations and discuss appropriate alternatives with their PCP.
Rationale: This level exceeds the reference range of 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L and warrants immediate intervention.
Rationale: Carvedilol potentiates the hypoglycemic effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs and can mask tachycardia in a patient who has hypoglycemia.
Rationale: Adequate kidney function is essential to promote urine production and excretion effectively.
Rationale: Can cause angioedema often manifesting as redness and swelling around the eyes and lips. Patients should stop taking the drug and seek medical attention.
Rationale: Furosemide is high-ceiling loop diuretic, increases sodium loss and can cause reabsorption of lithium, a mood stabilizer.
– inflammation of bronchial wall
– increased mucus secretion
– bronchiolar smooth muscle constriction
shortness of breath
use of accessory muscles of respiration
release inhibitors (e.g. cromolyn)
leukotriene receptor blockers
– primary use is for bradycardia or heart block
*PDE degrades cAMP to AMP
*narrow therapeutic index
cardiac stimulation (arrhythmias)
increased GI motility
*erythromycin, coffee, tea, cigarette-smoking can affect the effects of the drug
*beta-blockers can be useful in undoing CVS toxicity from theophylline
– synthesis of substances that inhibit expression of inflammation and allergy
– prevent modeling of respiratory tract, which may occur in severe, progressive inflammation of chronic asthma
mild growth retardation may occur in children, but eventually reach full recovery of growth as adult
small degree of adrenal suppression may occur
major systemic toxicities (reduced with alternate day therapy)
lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor
– elevation of liver enzymes
– prevents release of leukotrienes and other mediators
prophylactic management in asthmatic patients
management of acetaminophen overdose
2. due to apoprotein E variant that fails to bind properly to LDL receptor