Nutrition and Wellness: Obesity Unit

How is obesity measured?
BMI, body weight, body fat

What has the main impact on obesity?
consumption of more calories than you burn, eating too much and exercising too little

Factors that impact obesity
age, gender, genetics, environmental factors, physical activity, psychological factors, illness, medication

health problems
cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver disease, renal and urinary diseases, skin and appendages diseases, musculoskeletal disease, respiratory disease, psychological disease, reproductive diseases

What does BMI stand for?
Body Mass Index

Treatments for obesity
dietary changes, exercise, behavior modification, medication, weight loss surgery

What are the dangers of cardiovascular diseases? (Ex: Hypertensive Heart Disease, Diabetes)
fatigue, shortness of breath, irregulr pulse, frequent urination, unusual thirst, extreme hunger, unusual weight loss, fatigue.

What are the dangers of Endocrine diseases? (Ex: Hypertension, abnormal lipid levels)
artery pressure, high blood pressure

What are the dangers of Gastrointestinal diseases (Ex: gastro-esophageal reflux disease, appendicitis)
acid can go into esophagus or food pipe, swelling of the abdomen, internal infection, vomiting

What are the dangers of liver diseases? (Ex: cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
scarring of liver disease, decreased liver function, liver fat excess, confusion, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, weight loss, yellowing of skin, mucus on eyes

What are the dangers of renal and urinary diseases? (Ex: kidney stones, urinary tract infections)
permanent damage to kidneys

What are the dangers to skin and appendages diseases? (Ex: acanthosis nigricans, cellulitis)
light brown to black markings, usually on your neck, under arm, swollen red area of the skin, feels very hot, tender, fever, chills, hair loss, changes in appearance, can cause tissue death, bone infections, meningitis, and shock

what are the dangers to musculoskeletal diseases? (Ex: arthritis, osteoporosis)
joint tissues become less able to take stress, bones develop holes, swelling, pain, loss of mobility, lack of calcium

What are the dangers to respiratory diseases? (Ex: asthma, C.O.P.D)
sensitization to irritants and allergens, being overweight, rapid breathing rate, inflamed lung tissue, asthma attacks, life threatening, wheezing

What are the dangers to reproductive diseases? (Ex: polycystic ovary syndrome, dyslipidemia)
inbalance of sex hormones, lack of menstrual cycle, excess hair growth, infertility, hypothyroidism, too many or too few lipids in your bloodstream

What are the dangers to psychological diseases? (Ex: depression, binge eating)
low self esteem, over eating, obesity, suicide, type 2 diabetes

What are the treatments to some of these diseases?
counseling, healthy eating, prescribed medication, surgery, rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, losing weight, removal, exercise

How does age affect obesity?
– as you age, metabolism slows
– calorie needs change
– eating and activity habits change

How does gender affect obesity?
– more women are overweight
– men have a higher metabolic rate
– women go through menopause

Why may genetics be at fault for obesity?
– it tends to run in families
– adoptive studies: environment
– increases chances: predisposed

What are the psychological factors?
– response to emotions
– binge eating

What type of illnesses affect obesity?
– hormone problems
– hypothyroidism: slows metabolism
– rare brain diseases

What kind of emotions can affect obesity?
– boredom
– anger
– sadness
– stress
– depression

What are the different types of weight loss surgeries?
Gastric Bypass Surgery, Adjustable Gastric Banding, Sleeve Gastrectomy, Biliopancreatic Diversion

What are the pros and cons to Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Pros: helps to lose excess weight, reduces your risk of potentially life-threatening, weight-related health problems, improves your ability to perform one’s daily activities and routines.

Cons: excessive bleeding, infection, adverse reactions to anesthesia, blood clots, lung or breathing problems, leaks in your gastrointestinal system, death (rare), bowel obstruction, dumping syndrome, gallstones, hernias, low blood sugar, malnutrition, stomach perforation, ulcers, vomiting.

What are the pros and cons to Adjustable gastric banding?
Pros: Safer than Gastric Bypass, and other weight loss procedures, routinely done as minimally invasive, requires special instruments, recovery time is faster, reversible if necessary by removing the band, requires small incisions.

Cons: May be likely to regain some of the weight over the years, people who get this procedure usually do not have dramatic weight loss, vomiting; a result of eating too much too quickly, complications with the band are not uncommon, such as slipping out of place, becoming loose, or leaking, infection is a factor just like with any surgery, some complications can be life threatening.

What are the pros and cons to sleeve gastrectomy?
Pros: For people who are obese or very sick Gastric Bypass can be too risky, and so can biliopancreatic diversion, more simple, lower risk surgery, after 12-18 months after surgery if weight loss has improved they can go for a second operation if wanted, result in weight loss of 50% or greater, does not affect absorption of food, this means nutritional deficiencies are not a problem.

Cons: irreversible, risks are still being evaluated, because it is a new procedure, leaking of sleeve, infection, blood clots.

What are the pros and cons to biliopancreatic diversion surgery?
Pros: the surgeries are usually effective; most people lose 75% to 80% of their excess weight, most people stay at that weight.

Cons: there is a risk of infection, dumping syndrome, a higher risk of osteoporosis, bad smelling stools and diarrhea, poor nutrition.

What is Gastric bypass surgery?
The stomach is divided into a large portion, and a much smaller portion. The small part of the stomach is then sewn or stapled together to make a small pouch. The small stomach pouch can only hold a cup or so of food. With such a small stomach, people feel full quickly and eat less.

What is adjustable gastric banding surgery?
This surgery is among one of the least invasive procedures for weight loss treatments. This surgery uses an inflatable band to squeeze the stomach in two different sections (the smaller upper pouch, and a larger lower section.) These two sections are still connected; it’s just that the channel between them is really small. This slows down the emptying of the upper pouch of the stomach. Gastric Banding physically restricts the amount of food you can take in when you eat. Most people can only eat about a half cup to one cup of food before feeling full or sick after having this procedure done.

What is sleeve gastrectomy?
Another form of restrictive weight loss surgery. Operation is usually done with a Laparoscope, and about 75% of the stomach is removed. What is left of the stomach is a small narrow tube or sleeve, which connects to the intestines. Sometimes a sleeve gastrectomy is a first step in the sequence of weight loss surgeries. It can be followed with gastric bypass or with Biliopancreatic Diversion. In some cases this operation may be the only one you need.

What is biliopancreatic diversion surgery?
a treatment for morbid obesity, consisting of resection of two thirds of the stomach and attachment of the ileum to the proximal stomach.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *