NCLEX Pharmacology Drugs

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Antibiotic prescribed for a wide range of serious skin infections. Taking this with antacids can impair the absorption of the medication.

Cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Antiasthmatic, antiallergic, and mast cell stabilizer that decreases airway hyper-responsiveness in some clients with asthma. It has no bronchodilating action.

Sulfonylureas
Oral hypoglycemic medications that promotes insulin secretion by the pancreas

Protamine sulfate
Antidote for heparin

Trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
Antiemetic agent used for relief for nausea and vomiting

Gabapentin (Neurontin)
Anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer that binds with a receptor site in the brain tissue reducing anticonvulsant activity and reducing neuropathic pain. Abrupt withdrawal may cause increased seizure frequency. SE: hypersensitivity reactions, suicidal thoughts, confusion, ataxia, and hypertension

Digoxin, Lithium, Dilantin (phenytoin), Bronchodilators
Can easily cause toxicity, must monitor therapeutic range of medication

atropine
Anticholinergic, increases heart rate. Decreases GI and respiratory secretions. Reversal of muscarinic effects. May have a spasmolytic action on the biliary and genitourinary tracts.

Amiodarone (Cordarone)
Antiarrhythmic, anticholinergic used to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias that do not respond to first-line agents. Requires continuous cardiac monitoring

metoprolol (Lopressor)
Beta-blocker that decreases heart rate and blood pressure. It decreases the rate of CV mortality in heart failure pts. SE: bradycardia, HF, pulmonary edema, weakness, hyperglycemia, bronchospasms

norepinephrine (Levophed)
Vasopressor, produces vasoconstriction and myocardial stimulation, which may be required after adequate fluid replacement in the treatment of severe hypotension and shock. High alert med sometimes given during codes

amlodipine (Norvasc)
Calcium Channel Blocker, causes systemic vasodilation resulting in decreased BP; causes coronary vasodilation resulting in decreased frequency and severity of attacks of angina.

adenosine
Adenocard, restores normal sinus rhythm by interrupting re-entrant pathways in the AV node; slows conduction time through the AV node; produces coronary artery vasodilation

Vitamin K
The antidote to warfarin (Coumadin)

phenytoin (Dilantin)
Antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants: diminished seizure activity and termination of ventricular arrhythmias. SE: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, extrapyramidal syndrome and allergic reactions including Steven-Johnson syndrome
This comes in a suspension and should be shaken.

Valproic acid (Depakote)
Anticonvulsant, decreased manic episodes, decreased frequency of migraine headaches. Can cause hepatic toxicity!

Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
Bronchodilation, maintenance of HR and BP, localization/prolongation of local/spinal anesthetic. SE: angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, tachycardia, tremor

verapamil (Calan)
Calcium channel blocker: systemic vasodilation resulting in decreased BP, coronary vasodilation resulting in decreased angina, reduction of ventricular rate during A fib or atrial flutter

theophylline (Theo-Dur)
Bronchodilator; long-term control of asthma or COPD. S/S of toxicity: tachycardia, arrhythmias, seizures, N +V, headache, increased urination, flushing, confusion, tremors. Toxicity typically shows signs of CNS stimulation.

lamotrigine (Lamictal)
Anticonvulsant, maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Monitor pt for skin rash, which could be a sign of Steven-Johnson syndrome

estradiol (Climera)
Estrogen hormone, can be used to restore balance in menopause or treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Pt should report S/S of fluid retention, thromboembolic disorders, mental depression or hepatic dysfunction.

amitriptyline (Elavil)
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic properties. Has dangerous drug-drug interactions. SE: arrhythmias, torsade de pointes, hypotension, constipation, dry mouth.

sucralfate (Carafate)
Antiulcer agent; protection of ulcers with subsequent healing. It forms a protective barrier over ulcers.

captopril (Capoten)
ACE inhibitor, lowers BP, decreased symptoms with HF, decreased progression of diabetic nephropathy

baclofen (Lioresal)
Antispasticity agent, skeletal muscle relaxant. Can be used for spinal injury pts to inhibit reflexes at the spinal level. Bowel and bladder function may also be improved.

Augmentin
Combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium

lisinopril (Zestril)
ACE inhibitor, antihypertensive. Adverse effects to watch for: dry cough, mouth sores, fever, swelling of hands, irregular heart beat, swelling of face and difficulty breathing.

carbamazepine (Tegretol)
Anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer. SE: Steven-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and increased liver enzymes (may decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives). May be teratogenic.

ferrous sulfate (Feosol)
Antianemic, iron supplement. Take on an empty stomach or with a glass of water.

phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
Nonopioid analgesic for urinary tract infections. Can turn urine reddish-orange color

rosiglitazone (Avandia)
Antidiabetic medication for increased insulin resistance. Can cause stroke, HF, MI and edema. Monitor for S/S of heart failure.

ethambutol (Myambutol)
Antituberculoars for TB. Can cause: optic neuritis and hepatitis

propranolol (Inderal)
Beta-blocker: antianginal, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, vascular headache suppressant. Decreased BP and HR, suppresses arrhythmias and prevents MI.

hydrochloride (Tofranil)
Tricyclic antidepressant, with overdose, there is a risk for arrhythmias, tachycardia and MI

hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
Antianxiety agent, antihistamine, sedative/hypnotic with anticholinergic properties

isoniazid (INH)
Antituberculars, can cause drug-induced hepatitis, so need to monitor pt’s liver function including AST, ALT and serum bilirubin

Albuterol (Proventil)
Bronchodilator, adrenergic, can be used as a rescue medication for acute bronchospasms and status asthmaticus.

procainamide (Pronestyl)
Antiarrhythmic, can cause seizures, asystole, heart block, hypotension, agranulocytosis

benztropine (Cogentin)
Anti-Parkinson’s agent, anticholinergic used to reduce rigidity and tremors

gentamicin (Garamycin)
Aminoglycoside – bactericidal action; can cause ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity reactions

clopidogrel (Plavix)
Platelet aggregation inhibitor; decreased occurrence of atherosclerotic event in pts at risk. SE: bleeding, neutropenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hypertension, fever, hypersensitivity reactions

digoxin (Lanoxin)
Antiarrhythmic, causes increased cardiac output (positive inotropic effect) and slowing of the heart (negative chronotropic effect). S/S of toxicity: abdominal pain, anorexia, N+V, visual disturbances, bradycardia, and other arrhythmias.

acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Mucolytic and antidote for acetaminophen toxicity. It lowers the viscosity of mucus and lessens liver damage following an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol).

acetazolamide (Diamox)
Anticonvulsant, antiglaucoma agent, diuretic, and ocular hypotensive agent. Can be used for salicylate (aspirin) overdose or poisoning.

prednisone (Sterapred)
Anti inflammatory steroidal, causes suppression of inflammation and modification of the normal immune response. SE: hyperglycemia, hypernatremia (due to mineralocorticoid action), hypokalemia, HTN, peptic ulceration, thromboembolism, osteoporosis, and decreased wound healing

naproxen (esomeprazole)
NSAID, antiulcer agent, proton pump inhibitor. Use NSAIDs cautiously with aspirin allergies. SE: drug-induced hepatitis, GI bleeding, anaphylactic reactions, constipation.

spironolactone (Aldactone)
Potassium-sparing diuretic, don’t use salt substitutes with this because they could contain K

Levodopa (L-dopa)
Relief of tremor and rigidity in Parkinson’s syndrome. Watch for involuntary movements, nausea, vomiting

losartan (Cozaar)
Antihypertensive, decreases progression of diabetic nephropathy. Assess for angioedema (dyspnea, facial swelling)

naproxen sodium (naprosyn)
Nonopioid analgesic, NSAID, antipyretic. SE: fluid retention, rash, dizziness, headache, GI distress

What can lower serum K?
Kayexalate, calcium chloride, regular insulin and sodium bicarbonate

Potassium iodine (SSKI)
Antithyroid agent that can control hyperthyroidism and decrease bleeding during thyroid surgery. It can decrease the incidence of thyroid cancer following radiation emergencies.

propylthiouracil (PTU)
Antithyroid agent that decreases S/S of hyperthyroidism

misoprostol (Cytotec)
Prostagladin, antiulcer agent, pregnancy category X

Phenobarbital
Barbiturate – anticonvulsant, sedative/hypnotic. SE: laryngospasms, hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema and serum sickness, hangover, hypotension

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