History Great Depression Key Terms

Brain Trust
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression

A combination, union, or merger for some specific purpose

Court Packing
Assert more presidential control over the makeup of the Supreme Court.

A person whose pol. views favor more local, limited govt, less govt regulations, conformity to social norms &values; rough on criminals

Social Welfare
A nation’s system of programs, benefits, and services that help people meet those social, economic, educational, and health needs that are fundamental to the maintenance of society.

Hoover believed that individuals should help each other not rely on the gov’t. There was alot of voluntarism but it wasn’t enough to overcome the economic Depression

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

Alf Landon
Kansas governor who ran as republican against FDR and lost by a landslide

Black Cabinet
an informal network of black officeholders in the federal government; led by Mary McLeod Bethune, William Hastie, and Robert Weaver, they pushed for economic and political opportunities for African Americans in the 1930s and 1940s.

Black Tuesday
A name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply.

Bonus Army
1932 – Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
a public work relief program for unemployed men so they have jobs. the men worked on jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources

Collective Bargaining
Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine pay and acceptable working conditions.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.

Dust Bowl
A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry.

Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Father Coughlin
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severely against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR’s New Deal.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
(FDIC) A United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
The Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins, a New York social worker who was one of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s most influential advisers *, law provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed *Affected the people in trying to aid people feeling the effects of the depression, still in effect today

Fireside Chat
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

Francis Townsend
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.

Harry Hopkins
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans. p778

Herbert Hoover
31st President (1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 “Black Tuesday”. The 20th Amendment is passed and added and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933.

Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress

Huey Long
“Kingfish” Rep. senator of LA; pushed “Share Our Wealth” program and make “Every Man a King’ at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated

John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)

National Industrial Recovery Act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.

Neutrality Acts
1939 laws designed to keep the United States out of future wars

(economics) a market in which control over the supply of a commodity is in the hands of a small number of producers and each one can influence prices and affect competitors

Raymond Moley
Assistant secretary of state- later became a chief critic

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
gave 2 billion to states, banks, and insurance companies for self liquidating projects. Plan worked but 2 billion wasn’t enough

Rexford Tugwell
was an agricultural economist who became part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first “Brain Trust”

Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

William Lemke
This third party candidate, running on the Union Party’s ticket, did not even attract a million voters in the 1936 presidential election after Huey Long was assassinated. He was supported by Coughlin and Townsend, however

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.

100 Days
Period from March to June 1933 when Congress passed major legislation submitted by Roosevelt to deal with the Depression

Emergency Banking Act
Stabilized the private banking system.

Agricultural Adjustment Act
Established a farm recovery program based on production controls and price supports.

Emergency Farm Mortgage Act
Provided for the refinancing of farm mortgages.

Home Owners Loan Act
Protected homeowners from mortgage foreclosure by refinancing home loans.

Glass-Steagall Act
Separated commercial and investment banking and guaranteed bank deposits.

Farm Credit Act
Expanded Agricultural credits and established the Farm Credits Administration.

Securities Act
Required full disclosure from stock exchanges.

Wagner-Peyser Act
Created a US Employment Service and encouraged states to create local public employment offices.

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