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Rock Street 34, San Francisco State

cardiovascular disease
a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels
coronary, cerebrovascular
Types of CVD (2)
preventable
Many CVDs are ___________, meaning that they occur due to factors that are within our control.
plaque, atherosclerosis
Deposits of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances (called __________) that line the arteries indicate a condition called ______________.
blood flow
Plaque narrows passageway of arteries which leads to reduced __________________
diet
Usually, plaque buildup in arteries is due to ________ choices
coronary heart disease
Reduced blood flow causes chest pain and shortness of breath (angina) and heart attacks (myocardial infarction) describes _______________________
myocardial infarction
scientific name for a heart attack
cardiac arrest
___________________ is caused by ventricular fibrillation
ventricular fibrillation
__________________________ is an abnormal heart rhythm
cardiac arrest
Abnormal heart rhythm that occurs when the heart fails to pump blood to organs.
Angina pectoris
squeezing, tightness, or pain in the chest, usually caused by CVD
angina pectoris
____________________ is a warning sign that sometimes occurs prior to a heart attack, indicating that the heart muscle is not getting an adequate blood supply or oxygen
AED, CPR
Treatments for cardiac arrest (2)
AED (automated external defibrillator)
This device sends electrical charge to the heart that is meant to restart the regular circulation process
True
True or false: it is possible for someone to have a heart attack and not know it.
younger
Coronary heart/ artery disease is more prevalent in men at every age group except in ____________ individuals, where it is nearly even.
increases
Risk for coronary heart disease _____________ with age.
65
The average age for first heart attack
45, men
Between 4-10% of heart attacks occur before the age of ____, mostly in ______ (sex)
atherosclerosis
80% of “young” heart attacks (before age 45)
15
Fatty streaks from atherosclerosis is identifiable in arteries as early as age 15.
black men, white women
Incidence of myocardial infarction:
Highest in ______________ and lowest in _____________.
stroke
________ is a type of cerebrovascular disease that affects the vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the brain.
ischemic
This type of stroke involves the interruption of blood flow to the brain
ischemic
__________ strokes are more common and account for ~80% of strokes.
hemorrhagic
________ strokes occur when a blood vessel to the brain ruptures.
hemorrhagic
This type of stroke has a higher mortality rate.
hemorrhagic, ischemic
The incidence rate of _______________ stroke has remained stable and the rate of ___________ stroke has decreased.
2 million
A study said that _____________ neurons die each minute when oxygen does not reach the brain.
black males, black women
Stroke/ transient ischemic attack is most common in _____________ and is second-most common in ____________. (include race and gender)
Race
______ is a shockingly high factor in risk for stroke.
cardiovascular reactivity
___________________________ is a phenomenon where BP increases briefly due to frustration; higher incidence is seen in African American communities
True
True or false: 82% of people who die from coronary heart disease are 65 or older
Female
In which gender does CVD tend to develop later in life but have worse outcomes?
Women
More ___________ (women/ men) die within 1 year of having a heart attack
high cholesterol, high blood pressure, low HDL, smoking, obesity, diabetes
6 main risk factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Framington Heart study
The ______________________ concluded that a man who is free of all 6 CVD risk factors has a remarkably low 5% risk of developing CVD by age 95
False
True or false: Having a prior event of stroke makes it less likely that another one will occur
hypertension
________________ is a disease that is characterized by high blood pressure.
True
True or false: multiple measures of BP should be taken before diagnosing high BP
120, 80
A normal, healthy reading for systolic and diastolic BP is ____ / ___.
True
True or false: It is possible for hypertension to go undetected; someone can suffer from hypertension without knowing
Hypertension
The “silent killer” is sometimes a term used to describe _________________ because it can go undetected.
primary, secondary
Types of hypertension (2)
Primary
In __________ hypertension, there is no specific/ identifiable cause; could be a combination of lifestyle and genetics
secondary
In ___________ hypertension, the cause is another underlying health issue
women
In young adults ~20 years of age, _______ have a higher prevalence of hypertension. (This is ALSO true for OLDER women)
white coat hypertension
___________________________ describes a phenomenon where the stress of going to the doctor causes an increase in BP while you are there, but BP is normal at home
False (1 in 3 adults)
True or false: white coat hypertension may affect as many as 1 in 8 adults over the age of 50.
Type A
People with a ___________ personality may be more likely to have CVD, due to the associated hostility and anger
smoking
_____________ is the single most preventable risk factor for heart disease.
True
True or false: A large percent of the population, 59%, is not physically active.
physical inactivity
____________________ is the CVD risk factor that affects the largest percentage of the population.
Heart disease
___________________ is ranked #1 for mortality of Americans.
CVD
34% of all deaths in the US are from _________.
stroke
40% of all nations have a greater burden of ________ compared to heart disease.
Cancer
___________ describes a large group of diseases (over 200 types) characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
genetic
Cancer is a __________ disease (a disease of DNA)
***Do not confuse with hereditarity
hereditary
A _____________ disease is one that is passed from parents to a child through the inheritance of a defective gene.
genetic
All cancers are ___________, meaning that they result from the unnatural function of one or more genes.
True
True or false: cancer cells reproduce every 2 – 6 weeks.
1 million
____________ (#) cancer cells are the size of the head of a pin.
1 billion
__________ (#) cancer cells are the size of a small grape.
True
True or false: A person usually has cancer for several years before they know.
benign
___________ is a term that describes a tumor that is not cancerous; the tumor grows only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis
malignant
_____________ is a term that describes a cancerous tumor; it invades neighboring tissues, enters blood vessels, and metastasizes to different sites
False
True or false: cancer cells are well-differentiated from other cells
malignant neoplasms
The 2nd leading cause of death in the US is __________________________.
True
True or false: The current cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than women.
increase, decrease
The trend seen with cancer incidence in men: ____________ and then ____________.
carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma
Types of cancer (4)
carcinoma
In this type of cancer, cells cover internal and external body surfaces (epithelial tissues); about 85% of all cancers
carcinoma
This is the most common category of cancer: ______________
leukemia
Cancer of blood cells is called ________________.
lymphoma
Cancer of the lymph nodes and tissues is called ______________.
sarcoma
Cancer of cells in supportive tissues, such as bones and muscles, is called _____________.
skin
_________ cancer is the most common type of cancer in the US
basal, squamous
Half of all Americans will develop either _________ or ________ cell carcinoma at least once by the time they are 65 years old.
skin
There are more new cases of ________ cancer than breast, prostate, lung, and colon combined.
basal, squamous
Types of skin cancer, in order of prevalence (2)
True
According to the skin cancer foundation, 42% of people polled get a sunburn at least once a year.
melanoma
____________ is the most deadly type of skin cancer, accounting for only 4% of cases, but the majority of skin cancer deaths
True
True or false: The 5-year survival rate for melanoma is higher for Caucasians than for African Americans
melanoma
__________ is the most common form of cancer in people ages 25 – 29. (but in general, skin cancer is more common in older age groups)
False (Caucasians more likely to develop melanoma)
True or false: African Americans are 24x more likely to develop melanoma than Caucasians
True
True or false: Skin cancer is more DEADLY for African Americans
men
Skin cancer is more likely to occur in _______ (men/ women)
asymmetry, border, color, diameter, evolving
Skin cancer recognition signs (ABCDE)
older white
A YRBS survey showed that ________ _______ students are particularly likely to indoor tan.
breast, lung, prostate, colon, bladder
Other carcinomas (in order, after skin)
90
Breast cancer: The 5-year survival rate is nearly ___%
True
True or false: about 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime.
breast
_______ cancer has a similar prevalence rate of prostate cancer in men, but is associated with a slightly higher mortality.
40
Breast cancer: recommendations for early detection include annual mammograms for women above the age of 40.
False
True or false: recommendations are always consistent with healthcare coverage.
20, 25
Breast cancer: Women are considered at high risk if their lifetime risk is above ____ – ____ %.
True
True or false: 34% of breast cancer cases are diagnosed prior to the age of 54.
white women, black women
Breast cancer: ______ ______ have the highest incidence rates and _____ ______ have the highest mortality rates.
17
Lung cancer: 5-year survival rate is ____%
True
True or false: Lung cancer represents 13% of new cancer cases, and 27% of cancer deaths (another example of morbidity not speaking to mortality)
double
Lung cancer: the % of deaths caused by lung cancer is _________ the % of all new cancer cases.
lung
________ cancer deaths are greater than the COMBINED deaths due to breast, prostate, and colon cancer
Prostate
_________ cancer causes only 4.4% of all cancer deaths, and has a 98.9% 5-year survival rate.
Prostate
___________ cancer is a slow-growing cancer, which might be the reason for the lower mortality, compared to morbidity
Colon
___________ cancer is the 4th most prevalent cancer with a 65% 5-year survival rate.
bone, soft tissue
A sarcoma can occur in __________ or __________.
leukemia
___________ is a type of cancer that affects blood-producing tissue, like marrow
myeloid
________ leukemia descries an abnormal white blood cell increase
bone marrow
Diagnosis of leukemia requires a biopsy of _____ ________.
leukemia
____________ is the most common type of childhood cancer in children and adolescents younger than 20 years.
500, 700
How many lymph nodes do we have?: ______ – _____
hodgkin, reed-sternberg, non-hodgkin
Types of lymphoma include ________ (which affects _____________ cells), and ___________
more
Prostate cancer: Younger individuals are _____ likely to have a radical prostatectomy
early
Lung cancer: only 15% of lung cancers are diagnosed at the _____ stage.
biotherapy, immunotherapy
Cancer treatment: ___________ or ___________ works by training the immune system to function better
hormone
Cancer treatment: ___________ therapy works to lower estrogen levels or testosterone levels which promote the growth of cancer cells
HIV
Cancer treatment: a controversial treatment option involves the use of a mutated ____ virus used to combat cancer
engagement
This style of coping is often applied for cancer patients
False
True or false: men are typically good at supporting emotional needs, but not physical needs
BRCA
Which genetic marker indicates 20-25% higher risk of having breast cancer?
True
True or false: You have a 5-10% higher risk of having breast cancer if it is hereditary
Breast
This type of cancer has the highest diagnosis rate aside from skin cancer.
less, more
Cancer patients who do not have surgery have ____ depression and their relatives have _____ depression.
carcinogens
There are 900 known ____________ that are known/ thought to cause cancer.
euthanasia
An act in which a doctor essentially causes the patient’s death by injection.
True
True or false: childbearing (natural birth) and breastfeeding can decrease risk of cancer.
False
In physician assisted suicide, the doctor causes the patient’s death.
passive, active
Types of PAS (2)
ischemic, hemorrhagic
_____________ stroke is more prevalent but ____________ stroke is more deadly.
7
___ states allow PAS.
Passive
___________ PAS involves the removal of life-sustaining machines or nutrients.
Active
____________ PAS involves an active injection or medication.
men, women
Hypertension is more common in younger __________ and in older __________.
increase
This trend is seen in PAS (getting the prescription and taking it)
white
The race of the majority of people who seek PAS is ___________.
True
True or false: It is possible to take the medication associated with PAS and SURVIVE.
False
True or false: Some people have called for intervention after taking the drug associated with PAS (changed their mind)
Dr Kevorkian
Who was the medical professional that assisted terminally ill patients in suicide before it was made legal?
Baylor
The _________ plan, introduced in 1929, allowed teachers to stay up to 21 days in the hospital for a 50c payment.
indemnity insurance
This type of insurance is described as a contractual agreement.
nationwide insurance
Truman attempted this initiative during his presidency.
Medicare
President LBJ signed in ______________ during his presidency.
Affordable care act
The ______________________ was signed in in 2010 during Obama’s presidency.
stable
Trend seen in feelings on US healthcare system
increase
There has been a slight ___________ in % reporting being dissatisfied with COST of healthcare.
Beveridge
In the __________ model of health, healthcare is provided and financed by the government through tax payments.
Bismarck
In the ___________ model of health, plans have to cover everybody, and they don’t make a profit.
National
In the ________________ health insurance model, it uses private-sector providers, but payment comes from a government-run insurance program that every citizen pays into.
out of pocket
Most poor nations follow the ____________________ payment system.
openness, conscientiousness
Patient satisfaction is higher when the doctor has high scores for _________________ and _________________ (from the big 5 personality test)
True
True or false: 78% of patients discharged from the ER indicate that they do not understand their discharge instructions
medspeak, face time, nonverbal
Three biggest physician errors: __________, limited _____________ with patients, and ____________ communication issues
carcinogens
Cancer causing agents are called _______________.
mesothelioma
Excessive asbestos exposure leads to ___________________.

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