Health Psychology 303 Final (SIUE)

Explain the dual-process model in eating behavior
Automatic processes: fast, unconscious, and efficient
Controlled processes: slow, conscious, and effortful
Explain the models of substance abuse
Biomedical Model: dependence
Reward Model: addiction is motivated by pleasure seeking
Social-Learning Model: addiction is behavior – shaped by learning as well as by social and cognitive factors
-Classical Conditioning- drug use is associated with pleasure
-Operant Conditioning- increased drinking, reinforced, increase pleasure, reduce negative affectivity
Differentiate physiological dependence and physical dependence
Psychological dependence – a condition in which drugs are needed to maintain a sense of well-being or relief from negative emotions
Physical dependence – a psychological addiction in which more drugs are needed to prevent symptoms of withdraw
Explain withdrawal and tolerance
Withdrawal – unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms when stop using drugs
Tolerance – increasing adaptation to the substance so that higher and higher doses are needed to achieve the same result
Explain the self-medication model of alcohol use
Drinking to cope with depression and anxiety
Describe the pathway of pain from the skin to the brain
1. Nociceptor
2. Special pain nerve fibers
3. Dorsal horn
4. Brain
What is aversive therapy?
Aversion therapy is a form of behavior therapy in which an aversive (causing a strong feeling of dislike or disgust) stimulus is paired with an undesirable behavior in order to reduce or eliminate that behavior
Explain the gate control theory
A neural “gate” in the spinal cord regulates the experience of pain
Pain is not the result of a straight-through sensory channel
Described physiological mechanism by which psychological factors can affect the experience of pain
Neural gate can open and close thereby modulating pain.
Gate is located in the spinal cord
Differentiate opioid drugs and non-opioid drugs
Opioid drugs- “central acting” narcotics or agonists (morphine) act on receptors in the brain and spinal cord
Nonopiod drugs -“peripherally acting” nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen) relieve pain and reduce inflammation at the site of injured tissue
Explain the functions of periaqueductal gray
midbrain region: activates a descending neural pathway that uses serotonin to close the “pain gate”
Describe pain-management programs
It depends on which type and aspect of pain
Overall, the most effective programs are multidisciplinary in nature, combining the cognitive, physical, and emotional interventions of CBT with the judicious use of analgesic drugs
Effective programs also encourage patients to develop (and rehearse) a specific pain-management program
Group settings are probably most effective
Explain predictors of patient adherence
Forgetfulness (e.g., restaurant, trip)
Confused about dosage
Financial (wait until pay day, take 1/2 dose to delay renewing prescription)
Feeling sick (side-effects are not worth the benefits of treatment)
Feeling well
Differentiate sensitizers and repressors
Sensitizer- those who cope with health problems by closely scanning their bodies for info (quicker to seek treatment)
Repressors: those who cope with health problems by ignoring or distancing themselves from stressful info (slower to seek treatment, slower in recovery bc lower adherence)
Differentiate patient-centered approach and doctor-centered approach
Patient-centered: Avoids jargon and encourages participation in decisions
Doctor-centered: Ignores attempts to discuss other problems