Health for Living Chapter 15

cancer
-condition characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells
-develops from a single cell that goes awry
-combination of events must happen before cell turns into a tumor
clonal growth
replication of a single cell that produces thousands of copies of itself in an uncontrolled manner
Most common female cancer
breast cancer
deadliest over all cancer
lung cancer
healthy cell
-system of checks and balances
-divide and replace when needed
-possibility of mutation error each time they divide
stem cells
-undifferentiated
-pose risk of cancer because they are not predetermined
-deep within tissues
carcinogen
cancer causing substance
Cancer process
1. single cell undergoes critical mutation
2.initating event
3.error in duplication
-carcinogen
-radiation
oncogene
gene that drives a cell to grow and divide regardless of signals from surrounding cells
tumor
a mass of extra tissues that may form into either a benign or malignant tumor
benign tumor
slow growth, unlikely to spread
malignant tumor
capable of spread to surrounding tissues
metastasis
cancer that has spread from one part of the body to another
cancers are classified:
according to the tissue in which they originate, called the primary site
localized cancer
when its still at its primary site
metastasized cancer
it is invasive
Stage 0
in situ (only present in the layer of cells where it began)
stage 1
small and localized
stages 2 and 3
locally advanced may involve lymph nodes
stage 4
metastasized to distant sites
carcinomas
arise from epithelial tissue (skin, lining, body organs)
sarcomas
arise in connective tissue(bone, tendon, cartilage, muscle, fat, tissues)
leukemias
cancers of the blood that originate in the bone marrow or the lymphatic system
lymphomas
cancers that originate in lymph nodes or glands
risk factors
family history
lifestyle factors
social and economic factors
environmental factors
screening tests
given to a large group of people to identify a smaller group who are at higher risk for a specific disease or condition
treatments
-surgery
-chemotherapy
-radiation
-biological therapies
-bone marrow transplant
-gene therapy and genetic testing
-clinic trials
-complementary and integrative medicine
breast cancer
-2nd leading cause of death in women
lung cancer
-leading cause of cancer death in the united states
-second most commonly diagnosed cancer
lung cancer risk factors
-use of tobacco
-exposure to carcinogenic chemicals
-arsenic, radon, asbestos, radiation
air pollution, environmental tabacco smoke
lung cancer signs and symptoms
-coughing
-blood-streaked sputum
-chest pain
-difficulty breathing
-recurrent lung infections
breast cancer signs and symptoms
-persistent lump
-skin swelling
-redness or bumpiness
-change in nipple appearance or discharge
prostate cancer
second most common cause of cancer death in men, most commonly diagnosed cancer in men
prostate cancer risk factors
-age
-family history
-being black
-possibly a high fat diet
prostate cancer signs and symptoms
-early stages, none
-difficulty urinating
-pain in the pelvic region
-pain with urination
-blood in the urine
colon and rectal cancer
-third leading cause of cancer death
-third most commonly diagnosed cancer
colon and rectal cancer risk factors
-age
-personal or family history of colon polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, or colorectal cancer
colon polyps
growths that may progress to colon cancer
colon and rectal cancer signs and symptoms
change in bowel movements
-change in stool size or shape
-pain in the abdomen
-blood in the stool
skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma
melanoma
Melanoma risk factors
personal history
large number of moles
fair skin and sun sensitivity increases risk
basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas risk factors
fair skin
blonde, red, or light brown hair
blue green or hazel eyes
freckles and moles
cumulative sun exposure and age
lymphoma
cancers that originate in the lymph system, part of the body immune system (hodgkins, or non)
lymphoma risk factors
infections
medications
genetic changes that weaken the immune system
-radiation, herbicides, insecticides and some other chemicals
cancers that are frequently in young people
cancers of the reproductive system
leukemia
cervical cancer risk factors
HPV infection, tabacco use, multiple births, early sexual activity, multiple partners, nutritional status
uterine cancer risk factors
increased estrogen obesity, diabetes
ovarian cancer
leading gynecological cause of cancer death and 5th overall cause of cancer death in women
testicular cancer
most common cancer for men aged 20-35
leukemia
group of cancers originating in the bone marrow or other parts of the body where white blood cells form
oral cancers
cancers that develop in mouth or the pharynx
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