Pathogens that have been bred in the laboratory in a weakened form are known as ______ organisms.
For which of the following diseases would one receive a vaccine made from a pathogen that was killed in the laboratory?
Vaccines confer ______ immunity.
A person who is exposed to a disease and is subsequently injected with antibodies produced by others has been given
A serum that contains a variety of antibodies and is injected to provide temporary immunity is called
When the body responds to a relatively harmless substance as a dangerous pathogen and mounts an immune response, this response is called
Substances that provoke allergies are known as
Which of the following is not considered a common allergen?
The antibody most involved in triggering an allergic reaction is
The substance that increases the inflammatory response and the secretion of mucus following exposure to an allergen is
Key components of a typical asthma attack include all of the following except
Which of the following is not considered a pathogen
Meningitis is an infection of the
membrane covering the brain and spinal sord
Streptococcus and staphylococcus are examples of
Johnny has a red, sore throat with white patches on the tonsils, swollen lymph nodes, fever, and a headache. Which of the following bacteria caused Johnny’s symptoms?
A common bacterium found on the skin in healthy people but capable of causing infection if it enters the body is
Which of the following statements is not true regarding tuberculosis?
it affects the digestive tract
Lyme disease can cause all of the following except
Lyme disease is transmitted by a
Most ulcers are caused by
Tetanus is also known as
Whooping cough is a respiratory illness cause by the bacterium
Generally, antibiotics are useful against
Viral diseases are the most common form of ______ disease.
Colds are almost always transmitted by
Which of the following statements regarding the common cold is true?
it may be caused by more than 200 viruses
Influenza usually causes all of the following symptoms except
Influenza is highly contagious and spread via
A vaccine is available to prevent infection by
All of the following are childhood viral illnesses that have waned in the United States except
The herpesvirus associated with infectious mononucleosis is
Viral encephalitis causes inflammation of the tissue in the
The mildest form of hepatitis is hepatitis
Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes associated with hepatitis is called
Which virus can cause irreversible paralysis and death in some infected individuals?
Rabies is most often transmitted by
Warts on the hands are caused by infection with a type of
Molds, mushrooms, and yeasts belong to which group
The fungus that causes yeast infections is called
Hepatitis B is transmitted mainly by
Which one of the following statements is FALSE regarding STDs?
cannot be transmitted unless the person had symptoms
Which country has the highest STD rate of any developed nation?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
disables immune functions of CD4 T cells
Which one of the following statements is FALSE regarding the global spread of HIV/AIDS?
Asia and Africa are on par with each other
Worldwide, the most common route of HIV infection is
Shortly after HIV infection, most, but not all of those infected, will develop
The average time span between the initial HIV infection and the onset of disease symptoms in untreated people is _______________ years
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection?
Transmission of HIV occurs through which of the following?
unprotected sex with somebody who has HIV
Which of the following is NOT one of the three main routes of HIV transmission?
eating off of a persons untensils
The riskiest sexual activity for contracting HIV is
being the receptive partner during anal intercourse
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding oral sex and the transmission of HIV?
less risk than intercourse
Studies have found that women who frequently used _______________ for contraception were at greater risk for HIV transmission.
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding HIV transmission and infection?
higher risk if the person just brushed their teeth or flossed
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the transmission of HIV?
easier from female-male than male-female
Needle-sharing among drug users often leads to HIV transmission because
they may be contaminated with blood
The transmission of HIV from mother to child is called
Vertical transmission of HIV is
Signs and symptoms of HIV infection include all of the following, EXCEPT
In people with HIV infection, the amount of virus in the body can be measured with a(n)
The infection most often seen in people with HIV infection is
A rare form of cancer that has become common among men with HIV infection is
The initial screening test for HIV antibodies is the
The test that is used as a confirming test for HIV is the
The status of the immune system in someone with HIV infection can be monitored by checking
CD4 T cell counts
A test that shows how fast HIV from a patient’s blood sample can reproduce itself is known as
HIV replication capacity
Anonymous tests for HIV continue to be available because of concerns that people with HIV infection will be
All of the following guidelines are important when considering HIV testing, EXCEPT that you should
wait for symptoms
The first three classes of antiviral drugs developed for HIV infection include all of the following, EXCEPT
A widely used drug in the treatment of HIV infection that inhibits reproduction of the virus is
target the development of a protein coat around new copies of HIV.
A class of antiviral drugs that block HIV from invading and infecting cells are known as
Drugs frequently used to treat opportunistic infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis are
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding pregnancy and HIV?
more than 50 percent
Long-term antiviral therapy for HIV infection
is very expensive
Which of the following will NOT offer a high protection against HIV transmission during oral sex?
All of the following are risk factors for contracting HIV, EXCEPT
Chlamydia is the most prevalent _______________ STD.
Chlamydia infection is the leading cause of _______________ in men under age 35
Infants with chlamydia infection
are infected during delivery
Genital herpes is most often caused by
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding genital herpes?
after infection it lives dormant
Herpes is considered a serious STD for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT
high fertility rate
A drug used to treat herpes is
Inflammation of the liver is known as
Men who have sex with other men should be vaccinated for
The hepatitis B virus can be transmitted via all of the following, EXCEPT
Which of the following is considered a means of transmission of HBV?
Which one of the following statements is FALSE regarding hepatitis
can’t be transmitted to an unborn chils
The spiral-shaped organism that causes syphilis is a
A chancre is a sign of
Characteristics of primary syphilis include
lesion at site of entry
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding secondary syphilis?
Dementia, cardiovascular damage, blindness, and death are possible complications of
All of the following are TRUE regarding syphilis in pregnant women, EXCEPT there is
no risk of infection
A common sexually transmitted disease caused by an organism is
Typical symptoms of trichomoniasis in women include
green foul smelling discharge
The drug of choice in treating trichomoniasis is
If left untreated, trichomoniasis can increase the risk of
The most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age is