health/disease ch. 11 CVD, cancer, and diabetes

what has been the leading killer of US adults every year since 1900?
CVD- diseases of the heart and blood vessels
what’s the fastest growing chronic disease in american history?
diabetes
atria vs ventricles
atria are upper chambers that receive blood from the rest of the body & pumps it into ventricles, which are the lower chambers that pump the blood out again
arteries function
carry oxygenated blood away from heart (EXCEPT pulmonary arteries which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs)
veins and venules function
carry carbon dioxide and waste products to the lungs and kidneys
sinoatrial SA node
electrical signals that act in a rhythmic way to act as a natural pacemaker in the heart
average adult heart at rest beats how many times per minute
70-80
which gender is CVD more prevalent in
women
atherosclerosis
-fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin build up in the inner lining of an artery
-often called Coronary Artery Disease
hyperlipidemia
abnormally high blood lipid level – key factor in atherosclerosis
Ischemia
a condition in which blood flow is reduced and the heart’s blood and oxygen supply is limited
peripheral artery disease
atherosclerosis occurring in the lower extremities, such as in the feet, calves, or legs, or in the arms due to prolonged inactivity allowing blood to pool
5 factors responsible for blood vessel damage
1. inflammation
2. elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides
3. high BP
4. heredity
5. tobacco smoke
embolus
when a clot becomes dislodged and moves through the circulatory system
collateral circulation
-self preservation that allows an affected heart muscle to cope w/ damage by enlarging existing blood vessels and growing new ones to reroute blood when there’s a MINOR blockage
__% of heart attack victims die within the first hour following the heart attack
40%
signs of a heart attack
-discomfort/pressure in chest lasting minutes or going away and coming back
-pain in arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach
-shortness of breath
-cold sweat
-indigestion or nausea
-lightheadedness/dizziness
what causes ischemic strokes vs what causes hemorrhagic strokes
ISCHEMIC – caused by plaque or a clot that reduces blood flow to brain
HEMORRHAGIC – due to bulging or rupture of a weakened blood vessel
leading risk factor for stroke
hypertension
transient ischemic attacks
-brief interruptions of the brain’s blood supply that cause temporary impairment
-dizziness, weakness, temporary paralysis or numbness, blurred vision, difficulty speaking
aneurysm
the bulging of a weakened blood vessel wall
average healthy BP
110/80
isolated systolic hypertension
-when only the systolic pressure is high
-most common form of high BP in older americans
angina pectoris
-chest pain caused by reduced oxygen flow to the heart
fibrillation
when the heart beats in a sporadic pattern that causes extreme inefficiency in moving blood through the CV system
congestive heart failure
-when the heart muscle is damaged or overworked and lacks the strength to keep blood circulating normally through the body
congenital cardiovascular defect
-heart issues children are born with
-murmurs to more serious conditions treatable only with surgery
rheumatic heart disease
-heart prob in children casued by rhematic fever, an inflammatory disease caused by an unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat
cardiometabolic risks
-refers to combined risks (age, gender, level of activity) which indicate physical and biochemical changes that can lead to major CVDs
MetS (metabolic syndrome)
-increases risk for atherosclerotic heart disease
-a person with MetS has 3+ of the following:
-abdominal obesity,
-elevated body fat,
-high BP,
-low levels of HDL cholesterol,
– high fasting glucose,
– high levels of C-reactive proteins
C-reactive proteins
-present in blood at high levels during an inflammatory reaction
-may signal elevated risk for angina and heart attack
homocysteine
-an amino acid normally present in blood that, when in high levels, increases risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease
-it inflames the arterial lining and promotes fat deposits and development of blood clots
coronary bypass surgery
-a blood vessel is taken from another site in the pt.s body and is planted to “bypass” blocked coronary arteries and transport blood to to heart tissue
angioplasty
-a catheter is threaded thru blocked heart arteries. it has a balloon at the tip which is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against arterial walls, allowing blood to flow more freely
stent
steel mesh tube inserted to prop open an artery
neoplasm
new growth of tissue serving no physiological function; mass together to form a tumor
carcinomas
-cancers of epithelial tissues
-most common sites for cancers
-affect outer layer of skin and mouth as well as mucous membranes
-solid tumor
sarcomas
-cancers of the mesodermal tissue like bones, muscles, connective tissue
-solid tumor
lymphomas
-cancers that develop in the lymphatic system
-ex: hodgkin’s disease
-solid tumor
leukemias
-cancers of the blood forming parts of the blood, particularly bone marrow and spleen
-abnormal increase in # of WBCs
-non solid tumor
oncogenes
suspected cancer-causing genes
risk factors for colorectal cancer
-people over 50
-people who are obese
-heredity
-history of diabetes
-high fat , low fiber diets
-smoking
-high alcohol consumption
-low intake of fruits and veggies
-high consumption of red and processed meats
most common form of cancer in the US
skin cancer
ABCD rule to remember warning signs of melanoma
-Asymmetry
-Border Irregularity -uneven edges
-Color – non-uniform pigmentation
-Diameter – larger than 6 mm
immunotherapy
-designed to enhance the body’s disease-fighting systems to fight cancer
biological therapies for cancer
-cancer-fighting vaccines that alert the body’s immune defenses to cells gone bad to help people who are already ill
gene therapies for cancer
-antiviral drugs to kill cancer cells
angiogenesis inhibitors
stop tumors from forming new blood vessels which causes them to die or grow very slowly
Type 1 diabetes
-insulin-dependent diabetes
-immune system destroys insulin-making cells in the pancreas, reducing or stopping insulin production so cells cannot take up glucose, and blood glucose levels become permanently elevated
Type 2 diabetes
-non-insulin-dependent
-pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or the body doesn’t use it right
-insulin output declines, so blood glucose levels rise
multifactorial diseases (definition and examples)
disorders in which genes play a role
-obesity, heart disease, alzheimer’s types of cancer, type 2 diabetes
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