Health Chapter 28: First Aid and Emergencies

What are the four types of wounds?
Abrasion, Avulsion, Puncture, and Laceration

Abrasion
(scrape) with blood it looks like droplets example: scraped knee

Avulsion
part of your body is being pulled away example: dog bite, shark bite, farm accident

Puncture
(gun shot)- small ex. pencil into skin, gunshot wound

Laceration
slice example: papercut

What are the three types of bleeding?
Capillary, Venous, and Arterial

Capillary
scrape, little droplets, right by your skin

Venous
veins bleeding, bleeds very slowly, a purplish red blood (dark red because oxygen is getting out of it); can be very dangerous

Arterial
bright red, firing out, close to the heart, dangerous and won’t stop on its own (basketball story with kid running into glass)

Ways to control bleeding: Saftey
make a good decisions keep yourself safe

Ways to control bleeding: Pressure
direct pressure will help slow down the flow

Ways to control bleeding: Pressure Points
press on pressure points; there are 32 main pressure points

1st degree burn
red skin, and very hot

2nd degree burn
red, has a blister

3rd degree burn
charring of the skin and the nerves are burnt up. Get the person to a hospital

How to treat burns?
make everything gradual for 1st and 2nd degree burns: such as ointments, cooling, and soaking; 3rd degree burns- take person in, call 911

Chain of Survival
the steps to help someone

What does A.E.D. stand for?
Automatic External Defibrillator

What does CPR stand for?
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

What does cardio mean?
heart

What does pulmonary mean?
lungs, blood, curculatory system

What does resuscitation mean?
reviving

Shock
your body will shut down if it thinks you will die; saving everything for you brain, heart, and breathing

Hemilch
relieving a choking victim

What are warning signs of Heart Attack?
chest pain, shoulder pain, nausea

What are warning signs of stroke?
you can’t control one side of your body

What are the similarities of heart attacks and strokes?
they are both blockages

What are the differences between heart attacks and strokes?
Heart attacks go to the heart and Strokes go to the brain

What is the first step you should take in an emergency situation?
Check the situation

What kind of wound is characterized by a cut from a sharp object?
Laceration

What kind of burn is characterized by blisters?
Second degree burn

What is the first step in administering CPR?
Check the victim’s ariway

Which are 3 important reasons to place an unconscious person into the recovery position?
It protects the airway, it prevents choking, and it allows fluids to drain

Name three things about rabies?
It is transmitted through animal bites, vaccines can be given before symptoms appear, and it is fatal if left untreated.

define A.E.D.
a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm. Turn the A.E.D. on and it will lead you through instructions.

How many hands do you use on infants during CPR?
none. two fingers

How many hands do you use on children during CPR?
one hand

How many hands do you use on adults during CPR?
two hands

What two things are compressions doing?
pumps blood to the brain and heart

What is the 1st step in adult CPR?
scene safety

What is the 2nd step in adult CPR?
Ask if they are okay.

What is the 3rd step in adult CPR?
Look for breathing

What is the 4th step in adult CPR?
30 pumps : 2 breaths

What is the 5th step in adult CPR?
Continue until professional medical, the person is revived, or it has been too long (15 minutes)

What are the differences in child CPR differences?
the child is smaller, breathing is different, use one hand for child for less pressure (ages 1-8)

What are differences in Infant CPR?
two fingers, little puffs of air- cover mouth and nose with your nose

How many beats per minute (to match heart rate) do you use during adult CPR?
100 beats per minute

How many beats per minute (to match heart rate) do you use during child CPR?
110 beats per minute

How many beats per minute (to match heart rate) do you use during infants CPR?
120 beats per minute

What is the 1st step in adult heimlich?
Ask them if they are choking and tell them you want to help them.

What is the 2nd step in adult heimlich?
Make a fist, put thumb side above belly button and wrap the other hand around it. Push hands in and up

What is the 3rd step in adult heimlich?
If the person passes out, start CPR. Check mouth for item the person is choking on.

What are the differences in child heimlich?
match the child’s height

What is the 1st step to infant CPR?
the infant will turn grayish. The infant will try to make a sound but nothing comes out.

What is the 2nd step to infant CPR?
Grab the head to support it and do five back blows and five chest compressions with two fingers. Easy if seated or on your leg. Do this twice. Then do CPR and breaths.

A child is considered what ages?
1-8

If the first breath does not go in then what do you do?
Reopen airway by laying the head back then try again.

What are the differences in using an AED on a child?
Child pads and child switch (if there are any)

Where do you place AED pads on a child?
the diagram will tell you where to place it. one on the font and one on the back

Where do you place AED pads on an adult?
the diagram will tell you where to place it. Both on the front.

When you put the pads on make sure they…
Don’t touch eachother

If you are not sure wheter to give CPR or not…
see if they are okay. If the child responds then he is okay. If a child doesn’t respond then use CPR.

How do you check for responsiveness?
tap them and ask if they are okay

Before you do CPR, make sure that…
the scene is safe and ask if the person is okay

What are gasps and how do you treat them?
when the child is trying to get air, gasps are not breathing normally: START CPR

A gasp is a sign of what?
Cardiac arrest

It is important to get ___ to the child
air

When doing CPR on an adult, child, or infant give __ compressions to __ breaths.
30; 2

How many steps of CPR do you do on a child?
5

What do you do if the heimlich doesn’t work and they are not responding?
Give them CPR, call 911, then get an AED and continue CPR

What are two cause of the heart stopping?
heart attack and drowning

Where do you place your hands for compressions on adults and children?
put the heel of one hand on the lower half of the breast bone. Put the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand.

How fast do you do compressions?
100 pushes a minute

What does the AED do?
tells you if there is a heart beat. If there is no heartbeat it will give electricity to the person.

List the 5 parts of the chain of survival.
phone for help, push fast and hard (CPR), AED, advanced care, and coordinated care afterwards.

Calling ___ is one of the most important steps in CPR.
911

Keep doing CPR until?
1. The person comes to and is restored
2. You possibly can not go any further
3. A medical person, or someone else comes over to take your place.

When not to do the heimlich?
If someone can make sounds or can cough loudly

When to do the heimlich?
If someone cannot breathe, has a cough that has no sound, cannot talk or make a sound, makes the choking sign

What is the universal sign of choking?
holding the neck with one or both hands

Hand placement for heimlich
put the thumb side of your fist slightly above the belly button and well below the breastbone, then grasp your fist with your other hand

What adjustments for heimlich on a large or pregnant person?
Place your arms under the person’s armpits and your hands on the lower half of the breastbone. Pull straight back to give the chest thrusts.

first aid
the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided

universal precautions
actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other body fluids as if the contained pathogens

chain of survival
a sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chances of survival

defibrillator
a device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore its normal rhythm

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
a life-saving first-aid procedure that combines rescue breaths with chest compressions, supplying oxygen to the body until normal body functions can resume

shock
a failure of the cardiovascular system to keep an adequate supply of blood circulating to the vital organs of the body

poison
any substance-solid, liquid, or gas-that causes injury, illness, or death when introduced into the body

venom
a poisonous substance secreted by a snake, spider, or other creature

poison control center
a 24-hour hotline that provides emergency medical advice on treating poisoning victims

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