What does chronic bronchitis and emphysema lead to?
Once nicotine is in the blood, how long does it take to reach the brain?
What does nicotine affect and how?
by mimicking neurotransmitters ; breathing, movement, learning, memory, mood, and appetite
Nicotine’s short term effects:
increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, changes in the brain that may lead to addiction
First time tobacco users may experience:
signs of nicotine poisoning
Signs of nicotine poisoning:
rapid pulse, clammy skin, nausea, dizziness
What area of the brain does nicotine stimulate?
areas of the brain the produce feelings of reward and pleasure
Is nicotine a stimulant or depressant:
Nicotine’s effect on respiratory system:
increases mucus production, decreases muscle action in lungs’ airways, causes breathing to become more shallow
Nicotine’s effect on the nervous system:
increases activity level, mimics neurotransmitters, decreases some reflex actions, activates the brain’s “reward pathway”
Nicotine’s effect on cardiovascular system:
increases heart rate and the force of contractions, increases blood pressure, reduces blood flow to skin, increases risk of blood clotting
Nicotine’s effect on digestive system:
increases saliva production, decreases the amount of insulin released from the pancreas, increases bowel activity
What are factors in the time it takes to develop an addiction?
genetics, frequency of use, and age
What age of people becomes addicted faster: teens or adults?
Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal:
headaches, irritability, difficulty sleeping, inability to concentrate, intense nicotine cravings
How soon may withdrawal effect begins after the last dose of nicotine?
How many chemicals does tobacco smoke contain?
more than 4,000
In addition to nicotine, two of the most harmful substances in tobacco smoke are:
tar and carbon monoxide
short term effects of tar:
brown stains on fingers and teeth, smelly hair and clothes, bad breath, paralysis of cilia lining the airways, increased number of respiratory infections, impaired lung function
What does Carbon monoxide do once inhaled and absorbed into the blood?
binds to the hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells in place of oxygen
What happens to the red blood cells because of the carbon monoxide?
cannot transport as much oxygen as the body cells need
smokeless tobacco is a least as addictive as:
smokeless tobacco short term effects:
stained teeth, bad breath, drooling, receding gums, tooth decay
With every dose of tobacco, users increase their risk of?
respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and several different forms of cancer
Cigarette smoking alone is responsible for the deaths of how many Americans each year?
What is cilia?
hairlike extensions that line the respiratory tract
How is cilia damaged?
tar sticks to them and prevents them from moving
What happens to the bronchi because of smoke?
the lining of the bronchi is irritated
Smoking also leads to…
increase risk of stomach ulcers, slower healing of injuries, increased colds and flus, increased allergies and asthmas, a constant runny nose, frequent headaches, dulled sense of taste and smell, premature wrinkling
What % is cigarette smoking a result for COPD?
medications that open airways, breathing exercises, oxygen treatments, lung transplants
What forces the cardiovascular system to work harder to deliver oxygen throughout the body?
the effect of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide
Studies show that chemicals in tobacco smoke:
increase blood and cholesterol levels and promote atherosclerosis
Nicotine increases the blood’s tendency to:
Tobacco causes what cancers?
lung, oral and other types
factors that influence a tobacco user’s risk of developing cancer:
when the person started using tobacco, how much tobacco has been sued, how often the person is exposed to other people’s smoke
leading cause of cancer death for men and women:
__% of all deaths caused by lung cancer are related to smoking.
Is treatment for lung cancer likely?
cancers of the mouth, tongue and throat
__% of oral cancers occur in people who use tobacco
Tobacco users have an increased risk of cancers of the
esophagus, larynx, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, blood
What can long term exposure to second hand smoke cause?
cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, and cancer
Secondhand smoke causes close to 40,000 deaths from what?
heart attacks and lung cancer
Second hand smoke contributes to 300,000 ______ ____ in children younger than 18 months.
What does federal, state and local laws prohibit?
smoking in public places
How can you avoid second hand smoke?
ask smokers not to smoke around you, be firm when informing guests that they can’t smoke in your home or car, in restaurants sit in no smoking areas
Pregnant women who smoke put their babies at risk for:
cerebral palsy, sight impairment, hearing problems, learning difficulties
pregnant women who smoke have higher rates of?
miscarriages, premature births, still birthsq
Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are at a higher risk for?
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)