Subunits of protein molecules are known as
Of the 20 different types of amino acids, ________ are considered essential.
John is a healthy 20-year-old college student. He weighs 160 lbs and jogs at a moderate pace 3 days per week for 20 minutes. Based on this information, approximately how many grams of protein does he need daily?
Simple carbohydrates primarily provide
A good source of fiber (indigestible carbohydrate) includes
When hydrogen atoms are added to an unsaturated oil to cause more complete saturation, it produces
The current USDA “ChooseMyPlate.gov” website
provides specific daily food recommendations based on your sex, size, age, and activity level
According to the American College Health Association survey, approximately what percentage of college students consumes the recommended 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily?
The “bad cholesterol,” which leads to plaque deposits in blood vessels, is known as
helps protect against heart disease
Organic compounds that we need in tiny amounts to promote growth and help maintain health are known as
Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
A vitamin that helps maintain nervous system function is
People with low vitamin intakes tend to not eat enough
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for sodium is
2300 mg or less per day
A disease associated with low calcium intake is known as
The most common nutrient deficiency worldwide is associated with
Anemia results in
low blood oxygen levels
Humans are made up of approximately ________% water.
A measure of the amount of chemical energy that a food provides is known as
Foods that typically make you feel full and keep you satisfied longer
consist of higher amounts of fiber
Essential nutrients are
nutrients that can only be obtained from the diet
Which nutrient makes up antibodies that protect us from disease, assists with building and repair of bone and skin, and helps to transport oxygen?
Overconsumption of food is often encouraged by
restaurant portion sizes
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Americans consume an average of approximately _____ calories more per day now than they did in 1970
What major factor contributes to overconsumption of sweets, sodas and fruit drinks, alcoholic beverages, and salty snacks?
A lifestyle factor that influences weight includes
Women have a tendency to burn fewer calories than men due to
their higher level of essential body fat
A pattern of losing/gaining weight is known as
Underweight is defined as a BMI of
A problem associated with using prescription drugs to induce weight loss is that
the person tends to regain the weight as soon as he or she discontinues the medication.
A disturbed pattern of eating, dieting, and perceptions of body image that lead to medical issues is known as
an eating disorder
An eating disorder characterized by deliberate food restriction and severe, life-threatening weight loss is known as
An eating disorder characterized by bouts of binge eating followed by purging, laxative abuse, or excessive exercise is known as
A syndrome characterized by negative self-perception in which a person becomes obsessed with a physical defect is known as
body dysmorphic disorder
An eating disorder characterized by out-of-control eating without purging is known as
binge eating disorder
To lose weight, an individual should strive to achieve
negative caloric balance
Overweight is defined as a BMI of
25 to 29.9
One’s baseline rate of energy use, dictated by the body’s collective metabolic activities, is known as
average an hour of physical activity daily
Obesity is defined as a BMI of
Successful weight loss can be best accomplished by
making small dietary changes over time
The relationship between the amount of calories consumed in food and the amount of calories expended through metabolism and physical activity is known as
In the United States the average life expectancy for a female is
Physical inactivity contributes to which of the following health conditions?
Research has shown that ________ decreases a person’s risk for chronic disease.
Recent research has shown that most Americans are
Being physically fit, getting regular medical exams, and having a healthy diet are all components of ________ wellness
Your friend is morbidly obese. When you express your concern to him about his health, he denies that his obesity will have any effect on his health and cites the example of his father, who is also obese and apparently healthy. Which stage of behavior change is your friend in regarding his obesity?
A conviction that one can control events and factors in one’s life is known as
locus of control
John runs 3 miles, five days a week, because he enjoys the challenge and the way he feels afterward. John’s reward for running is
Recycling and using public transportation are examples of ________ wellness
The ability to change body position with speed and accuracy is
The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time is
The principle that states that training levels will decrease towards initial levels when training is stopped is known as
How many minutes of moderate physical activity should an adult perform each week to maintain health?
Exercise intensity is most closely related to
how hard you exercise
Which of the following is a purpose of the exercise warm-up?
increase muscle elasticity
Which of the following is a benefit of maintaining a good level of flexibility?
prevention of low back pain
The ability to perform work or contract muscles with high force quickly defines
Cardiorespiratory fitness is defined as
the ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to muscles
The lower chambers of the heart are called
The left ventricle pumps blood to
the systemic circulation
During the ________ phase of the heart cycle, the ventricles relax and fill with blood.
Short-term, high-intensity training, such as sprinting, is known as
Training that involves continuous activity sustained for 20 or more minutes is known as
Which of the following may occur as the result of cardiorespiratory training?
improved oxygen delivery to muscles
With training, resting heart rate decreases. This is primarily the result of
an increase in stroke volume
With training, you can typically improve your VO2max by
15 to 20%
Training that alternates periods of high-intensity exercise with periods of lower intensity exercise or rest is known as
Training that alternates exercise modes within a given program is
Air entering the body through the nose travels first through the ________ and then through the ________ before entering the lungs
upper respiratory tract; lower respiratory tract
Chronic pain in the front of the lower leg is known as
A common overuse injury is
Muscular fitness is defined as
the ability of the musculoskeletal system to perform daily activities without undue fatigue
An individual muscle cell within each skeletal muscle is called a
Type I muscle fibers (slow-twitch)
utilize oxygen to contract.
Which of the following athletes is most likely to have the greatest percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers?
A muscle contraction with no change in muscle length is
A muscle contraction with constant speed is
A muscle contraction with overall muscle shortening is
Loss of muscle mass and strength with aging is called
Which of the following is an example of a speed and agility drill?
Small fluid-filled sacks that lubricate the movement of muscles over muscle or bone are called
If a stretch reflex is activated, the muscle will
The sit-and-reach test measures flexibility in the
hamstrings, lower back, and hips
A measure of overall joint stiffness during movement is
Stretching that involves using voluntary contractions to help facilitate relaxation is known as
Disk herniation is
a permanent bulge of the intervertebral disk out of the normal space
Gentle stretching and relaxation of muscles will
decrease stress hormones
Fibrous tissues that connects bone to bone are called
When a doctor taps your patellar tendon, your leg kicks out as a result of
a reflex contraction of the quadriceps muscle
April is stretching her shoulder by extending her arm up and slowly rotating it back until she experiences mild discomfort. She then holds that position for 30 seconds. By this description, April is performing
Round spongy pads that act as shock absorbers in the spine are known as
The most frequently eaten vegetables in America are
iceberg lettuce and potatoes
Which of the following food choices would be considered the least healthy in terms of fat content?
People under stress often
use sugar to alter energy levels
The glycemic index is a measure of the rate at which foods
raise blood sugar levels
The fatty acids in most foods and in the body occur in the form of
Fats that are solid at room temperature are
According to a national survey of college students, which of the following represents the biggest impediment to academic success?
The region of the brain that releases hormones that first trigger the stress response is called the
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in response to stress is called
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Sarah narrowly avoided a traffic accident and is experiencing rapid heart rate and other symptoms of the fight-or-flight stress response. Based on her physical and emotional state, Sarah is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
Allostatic load can lead to
high blood pressure
An acute stress disorder caused by experiencing an extremely traumatic event is
post-traumatic stress disorder
A state of stress-induced physical and mental exhaustion is known as
Jeff is a hard-driving, competitive, perfectionist. His personality type is most likely
An event or circumstance to which the body tries to adapt is
When practicing progressive muscle relaxation, which part of the body should you start with?
A stress management technique that identifies muscular tension and releases it one muscle group at a time is called
progressive muscle relaxation.
A set of physical or emotional reactions following a stressful event or circumstance is
a stress response
Which of the following is considered negative stress?
Blood returns from the body back to the heart via the
In a blood pressure reading of 110/70, 110 represents ________ pressure and 70 represents ________ pressure.
Which of the following is true of hypertension?
Depression and high alcohol consumption increase the risk for hypertension.
Atherosclerosis that occurs in the extremities is called
peripheral artery disease.
Chest pain due to ischemia is called
A sporadic, quivering heartbeat pattern is known as what?
Congestive heart failure results in
an enlarged heart.
A hemorrhagic stroke is defined as
a stroke resulting from a burst blood vessel.
An audible sound based on an irregular heart valve that allows turbulent blood flow through the heart is known as
a heart murmur.
Blockage of blood flow to the brain is known as
________ and ________ fats can cause an increase in blood cholesterol levels.
The heart works harder to transport blood in people who
Which condition is a cluster of obesity-related risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes?
Hardening or stiffening of the arteries as plaque accumulates at injury sites in the inner linings of the arteries is known as
Pressure applied to the walls of the arteries during the heart’s relaxation phase is known as
Hypertension can cause which of the following?
blood vessel damage
Which ethnic group has the greatest risk for cardiovascular disease?
In type 2 diabetes
body cells become resistant to insulin.
Hyperglycemia can damage which of the following?
Which of the following statements is true regarding gestational diabetes?
After the mother gives birth, her glucose usually returns to normal levels.
A common symptom of uncontrolled diabetes is
Which of the following is primarily caused by smoking?
In asthma, which of the following becomes inflamed and mucus-filled?
Which of the following is a symptom of chronic bronchitis?
________ causes bones to become thin.
Increased intake of which of the following can help prevent osteoporosis?
________ is the leading cause of disability in the United States.
For which of the following age groups is the need for calcium the highest?
Which organ produces insulin?
Osteoarthritis involves breakdown of the ________.
Which of the following is an autoimmune disease involving insulin production?
type 1 diabetes
________ follows cardiovascular disease as the second leading cause of death in the United States.
Leukemia is characterized by an increase in
white blood cells.
Cancer is localized and often treatable when it is in
Most skin cancer deaths are caused by
A person with which eye color has the lowest risk of skin cancer?
The Pap test is the most effective way to detect early stage ________ cancer.
A tumor that is non-cancerous is
________ cancer is most common for males between the ages of 20 and 34.
A factor that lowers the risk for colon cancer and rectal cancer is
a diet high in fiber.
Hepatitis, which can be transmitted through use of contaminated intravenous (IV) needles, can increase the risk of ________ cancer.
Ultraviolet (UV) rays are considered
Cervical cancer is predominantly caused by
human papillomavirus (HPV).
A primary disadvantage of treating cancer with radiation is
it also destroys some healthy cells.
Which form of cancer treatment uses targeted beams of ionizing energy to destroy malignant cells?
The two main types of lymphomas are ________ and ________.
Addiction is defined as
persistent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance.
Which of the following factors increases the rate at which your body will absorb alcohol?
drinking a carbonated alcoholic beverage
Problems associated with long-term use of alcohol include
shrinkage in brain size and weight.
A condition in which the liver cells are damaged and scarring occurs is which of the following?
A major cause of mental retardation in the United States is
fetal alcohol syndrome.
The major psychoactive substance in tobacco is
An excessive preoccupation with a behavior and an overwhelming need to perform it is defined as
The American Cancer Society estimates that smoking causes approximately ________% of all lung cancer cases.
Sarah is trying to quit smoking. After two days without cigarettes she is feeling irritable and restless. Sarah is most likely experiencing
The psychoactive substance in marijuana is known as
A common side effect of designer or “club drugs” is
Cocaine may be described as both
an anesthetic and a stimulant
Which drug is a hallucinogenic designer drug that has become popular again on college campuses and is taken to improve mood or get energized?
A drug that depresses the central nervous system is
Heavy episodic (binge) drinking is defined as ________ or more drinks in a row for men or ________ or more drinks in a row for women.
Which of the following represents the number one cause of preventable death among undergraduates in the United States?