Avoid eating types of fish that often contain high amounts of methylmercury, particularly shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish.
The FDA and the EPA also recommend that caregivers should not feed fish that contain high amounts of methylmercury to young children because their nervous systems are still developing.
The use of illegal drugs, herbal supplements, and medications during pregnancy can also harm the embryo/fetus. Ideally, the time to quit abusing illegal drugs is before pregnancy. Pregnant women should consult their physicians before using herbal supplements or taking any drugs, even over-the-counter medications.
28-40 lbs for underweight women
15 for obese
more for multiple births
iron deficiency anemia – premature births and low birth weight
smoking – low birth rate, sudden death syndrome, birth defects
Allergies are immune system responses to the presence of foreign proteins in the body. Allergies to proteins in foods, especially cow’s milk proteins, often begin in infancy and may persist through childhood. Signs and symptoms of food allergies typically include the following:
Vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal gas and pain, bloating, or constipation
Itchy, swollen, or reddened skin
Runny nose and breathing difficulties, such as asthma
Use a baby-sized spoon—a small spoon with a broad handle.
Hold the infant comfortably on your lap, as for breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, but in a more upright position to ease swallowing.
Add some breast milk or infant formula to the cereal, and place a small dab of the semisolid food on the spoon’s tip. Gently place the spoon on the infant’s tongue and tilt it so the food slides onto the tongue. If the infant spits it out, do not continue with the feeding.
Expect the infant to take only two or three bites during these early feeding sessions.
Semisolid baby cereal in a baby bottle that has the nipple opening enlarged. This practice contributes to overfeeding and does not help the child learn self-feeding skills.
Candy, flavored gelatin water, or soft drinks. These items provide few micronutrients.
Small pieces of hard or coarse foods. Foods such as hot dogs (unless finely cut into sticks, not coin shapes), whole nuts, grapes, chunks of cooked meat, raw carrots, popcorn, and peanut butter can cause choking. Caregivers should supervise meals to keep young children from stuffing too much food in their mouths.
Excessive amounts of apple or pear juice. The fructose and sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, contained in these juices can lead to diarrhea. Also, if the infant drinks fruit juice or fruit drinks rather than breast milk or infant formula, the child may not be receiving adequate amounts of calcium and other essential minerals.
Unpasteurized (raw) milk. Raw milk may be contaminated with bacteria or viruses.
Goat’s milk. Goat’s milk is low in iron, folate, and vitamins C and D
hormone signals breast to let down milk
milk travels through tubes to the nipple
antibodies and immune cells
reduce risk of allergies
reduces uterine bleeding
decreases risk of breast and ovarian cancer before menapause
more carbs and fat
coordinate head and mouth muscles
digest, metabolize, excrete wider range
transfer nutrients from the mother’s bloodstream to the embryo/ fetus.
eliminate waste products from the embryo/fetus.
prevent all toxic substances from reaching the embryo/fetus.
transfer oxygen from the mother’s bloodstream to the embryo/ fetus.
300 kcal lower than
about the same as
300 kcal higher than
500 kcal higher than
A woman’s energy needs are higher during the first trimester than at any other time in pregnancy.
Using infant formula to bottle-feed a baby is more convenient and less expensive than breastfeeding a baby.
Oxytocin is necessary for the “let-down” reflex to occur.
The American Pediatric Association recommends feeding fresh whole milk to infants when they are 6 months of age.
more likely to have diarrhea
less likely to have cystic fibrosis
more likely to have respiratory infections
less likely to have ear infections
4 to 6 weeks
4 to 6 months
6 to 12 months
12 to 14 months
iron-fortified infant rice cereal.
mixed baby food dinners.
cooked egg whites
having a family history of obesity
eating 3 to 5 servings of fresh fruit daily
being a low-birth-weight infant
All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct
taking antioxidant supplements
eating a high-protein diet
performing vigorous physical exercise
None of the choices are correct.
gradual physical decline that is related to aging and during which the body becomes less strong and efficient.
increase 3 to 4 times in weight