glycopyrrolate and atropine

preanasthetic drugs are
drugs administered to an animal before giving general anesthesia

reasons for using preanesthetic drugs
calm or sedate, reduce or eliminate adverse effects of general anesthesia, reduce amount of general anesthesia, decrease pain and discomfort during surgery and in postoperative period

what other uses do preanesthetic drugs have
travel, grooming, exams, storms, fireworks,

phenothiazines also
prevent chewing of tubes, catheters and bandages and are also an antiemetic

when are most preanesthetic drugs administered to a patient
15-20 minutes prior to induction

how are most preanesthetic drugs administered
IM or SQ because they have a longer duration or effect than IV

what is the only preanesthetic drug that does not cross the placental barrier
glycopyrrolate

the two most commonly used anticholinergics
atropine and glycopyrrolate, and can be given IV in an emergency

what concentrations does atropine come in
20mg and 100mg

mode of anticholinergics
blocks certain receptors for the neurotransmitter ACH at the muscarinic receptors but has no effect on the nicotinic receptors

are anticholinergic drugs sympatholotic or parasympatholotic
parasympatholotic

where are muscarinic receptors found
heart, GI tract, bronchii, several secretory glands and iris

effects of atropine
blocks stimulation of the vagus nerve and prevents bradycardia and reduced cardiac output, has antisialagogic activity and reduces GI motility, mydriasis, reduces tear secretions, promotes bronchodilation, produces thick mucus especially in cats

atropine is contraindicated in
patients with heart disease, and pre existing rapid heart rate, ileus, and constipation, glaucoma

antisialagogic activity reduces
saliva

what is mydriasis
pupil dilation, which can cause light sensitivity and blurred vision

bronchodilation casues increased
anatomic dead space

dead space is
parts of the respiratory system that contain air but no gas exchange occurs, this puts patients at risk for hypoxemia

what is hypoxemia
low blood oxygen

onset of atropine is
20 minutes

duration of effect of atropine is
60-90 minutes

an overdose of atropine is more common in
dogs than cats

atropine toxicity signs
drowsiness or excitement, dry MMs, ataxia or muscle tremors, dilated pupils, hyperthermia, tachycardia

an atropine overdose can be treated but not reversed with
physostigmine

glycopyrrolate is
similar to atropine only duration is 2-3 hours, safe for use in animals with heart disease, suppresses salivation better, and does not cross placental barrier but it is more expensive

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