Foundations of Nursing Exam 3 Nutrition

water soluble vitamins
Vitamin C and B complexes that the body cannot store, therefore people must get a daily supply in their diet

fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K vitamins that the body can store.

Clear Liquid Diet
This diet is limited to water, tea, coffee, clear broths, ginger ale, or other carbonated beverages, strained and clear juices, and plain gelatin.
This diet provides the client with fluids and carbohydrates, but does not supply adequate protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, or calories.
It is short term and provided for clients after certain surgeries or acute stages of infection.

Clear Liquid Diet
Coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, bouillon, fat-free broth, clear fruit juices, popsicles, gelatin, sugar, honey, hard candy.

full liquid diet
This diet contains liquids or foods that turn to liquid at body temperature.
Often eaten by clients who have gastrointestinal disturbances or are otherwise unable to tolerate solid or semi-solid foods.

full liquid diet
All foods on the clear liquid diet plus: milk and milk drinks, puddings, custards, ice cream, sherbet, vegetable juices, refined or strained cereals, cream, butter, margarine, eggs, smooth peanut butter, and yogurt.

soft diet
This diet is easily chewed and digested. It is often ordered for clients who have difficulty chewing and swallowing. It is a low residue diet containing very few uncooked foods.

soft diet
All foods on full and clear liquid diets plus: meat, fish, or poultry, spaghetti with sauce, scrambled eggs, cottage cheese, vegetables, mashed potatoes, squash, uncooked or canned fruits, oatmeal, and soft cake.

pureed diet
A modification of the soft diet. Liquid may be added to the food, which is blended to a semisolid consistency.

Diet As Tolerated
Ordered when the client’s appetite, ability to eat, and tolerance for certain foods may change.

NPO
Stands for “nothing by mouth”

dysphagia
Due to this condition, these clients may have inadequate solid or fluid intake, be unable to swallow their medications, or aspirate fluid or food into their lungs- causing pneumonia. Clients at risk for this include: older adults, clients who have had a stroke, clients who have cancer and have had radiation therapy around the head or neck, and others with cranial nerve dysfunction.

dysphagia diet
Liquids: thin, nectar, honey, spoon thick and Semisolid/solid foods: Pureed, mechanical soft, regular/general

Body Mass Index
An indicator of changes in body fat stores and whether a person’s weight is appropriate for height, and may provide a useful estimation of malnutrition. Weight in kilograms/ Height in meters.

Underweight
BMI less than 18.5

Normal
BMI 18.5-24.9

Overweight
BMI 25-29.9

Obesity
BMI 30.0-39.9

Extreme Obesity
BMI 40 or greater

nasogastric Tube
A tube is inserted through one of the nostrils down the nasopharynx, and into the alimentary tract. Traditional firm, large-bore tubing will be placed into stomach.Used for feeding clients who have adequate gastric emptying, and who require short-term feedings.

nasogastric tube
They are not advised for feeding clients without intact gag and cough reflexes since the risk of accidental placement of the tube into the lungs is much higher in these clients.

Nasoenteric Tube
A longer tube than the nasogastric tube. It is inserted through one nostril down into the upper small intestine. These are used for clients who are at risk for aspiration. These clients include:
Decreased level of consciousness
Poor cough or gag reflexes
Inability to participate in the procedure
Restlessness or agitation

Gastrostomy
A tube that is surgically placed directly into the client’s stomach and provides another route for administering nutrition and medications.

Jejunostomy
A tube that is placed surgically or by laparoscopy through the abdominal wall into the jejunum for long-term nutritional support.

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