Env. Health Exam #1

Why do children in comparison with adults represent a group that is especially vulnerable to environmental hazards? Choose the incorrect answer.

A: Their immune systems are still developing
B: They may be exposed more often to toxins in the outdoor air
C: They may be exposed more often to toxins in the soil
D: They spend more time indoors
E: They may inadvertently ingest toxic substances

D: They spend more time indoors
Prevalence measures aid in:

A: assessing the variations in disease occurrence
B: The development of hypotheses
C: Determining the risk of disease
D: Describing the scope of health problems
E: A, B, & D only

E: A, B, & D only
which of the following activities characterizes the epidemiologic approach (as opposed to the clinical approach)

A: Description of a single individuals symptoms
B: Study of cancer occurrence in populations
C: Treatment of a patient with lung cancer
D: Diagnosis of a disease in a single individual
E: A, C, & D only

B: Study of cancer occurrence in populations
Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health that are determined by:

A: Physical factors
B: Biological factors
C: Social factors
D: Psychosocial factors
E: All of the above

E: All of the above
True or false cholera outbreaks occurred in New York CIty during the mid 1800s

A: True
B: False

A: True
the estimated global burden of disease linked to environmental sources is:

A: 5% to 20%
B: 25% to 33%
C: 35% to 50%
D: 55% to 70%
E: 75% to 89%

B: 25% to 33%
currently the number of years required for a developing country’s population to double is approximately

A: 53 years
B: 73 years
C: 43 years
D: 13 years
E: 93 years

C: 43 years
risk management refers to the question of

A: what are the health affects that this agent can cause?
B: What is the relationship between dose and occurrence of health effects in humans?
C: What exposures are currently experienced or anticipated under different conditions
D: What is the estimated occurrence of the adverse effect in a given population
E: none of the above

C: What exposures are currently experienced or anticipated under different conditions
the concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by

A: Route of entry into the body
B: received dose of the chemical
C: Duration of exposure
D: Individual sesitivity
E: All of the above

E: All of the above
of the following routes of exposure which one has the most rapid effect

A: Intravenous
B: Ingestion
C: Dermal
D: Intramuscular
E: Inhalation

A: Intravenous
cohort study is to risk ratio as:

A: Hippocrates is to scrotal cancer
B: Genetics is to environment
C: Case-control study is to odds ratio
D: Sir Percival Pott is to John Snow
E: None of the above

C: Case-control study is to odds ratio
those members of the population who are capable of developing a disease of condition are known as:

A: Incident cases
B: Prevalent Cases
C: The population at risk
D: The immune fraction
E: None of the above

C: The population at risk
the risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by:

A:The case fatality rate (CFR) from that disease in the 0-4 age group
B: A spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year
C: The prevalence for that disease during the past year
D: The incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
E: The number of deaths due to that disease during a given year

D: the incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
identify the historical figure who was among the first to expound on the role of environmental factors in causing diseases:

A: Sir Percival Pott
B: John Snow
C: Hippocrates
D: K.J. Rothman
E: Socrates

C: Hippocrates
The contributions of epidemiology to environmental health include

A. Concern with populations
B. Use of observational data
C. Methodology for study designs
D. Descriptive and analytic studies
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
environmental health science is concerned with agent, host, and environmental factors in disease (the epidemiologic traingle) what stateent belows is true about the triangle?

A: Agent factors can include particles, toxic chemicals, and pesticides
B: The environment is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist
C: The host is the person who affords lodgment of an infectious agent
D: Disease causality includes three major factors: agent, host, and environment
E: All of the above are true

E: All of the above
what percent of the earth’s water is drinkable?
3%
BONUS QUESTION: who said the command ” Be fruitful and multiply”
William R. Inge (1931)
Environmental risk transition is most likely to be characterized by:

A. Increasing levels of poor food, air, and water quality
B. Increasing frequency of diarrhea caused by unsafe water
C. Air pollution from poor-quality indoor fuels
D. Control of household risks and creation of a new set of problems
E. Increases in acute respiratory diseases

D: Control of household risks and creation of a new set of problems
In 2050, the world’s three most populous countries will be

A. China, India, United States
B. United States, Russia, and Japan
C. China, Indonesia, and Brazil
D. India, China, United States
E. Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria

D: India, China, United States
Identify the incorrect statement: The 2009 swine flu outbreak:

A. Was caused by the H5N1 virus
B. Spread through North America to other parts of the globe
C. Was classified as a pandemic by WHO
D. Showed evidence of person-to-person transmission
E. Initial cases showed no evidence of contact with pigs

A: Was caused by the H5N1 virus

OR

B: Spread through north america to other parts of the globe

Lemuel Shattuck’s proposals set forth in the Report of the Sanitary Conditions of Massachusetts

A. Argued for the creation of state health departments
B. Described how environmental sanitation affected health
C. Were extremely innovative for their time
D. Ultimately were adopted by public health departments and are now in use
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
On Airs, Waters, and Places was significant because it:

A. Identified an environmental cause of cancer
B. Described unsafe and hazardous working environments
C. Described the toxic properties of sulfur and zinc
D. Emphasized the role of the environment in people’s health
E. None of the above

D: Emphasized the role of the environment in people’s health
Reasons for the potential spread of avian influenza include:

A. Intensive animal husbandry practices
B. Restriction of international travel
C. Demonstrated person-to-person transmission
D. B & C
E. All of the above

A: Intensive animal husbandry practices
Stage 1 of the demographic transition demonstrates:

A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
B. Fertility and mortality rates are high
C. Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions
D. Increasing mortality rates; dropping mortality rates
E. None of the above

B: Fertility and mortality rates are high
Stage 2 of the demographic transition demonstrates:

A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
B. Fertility and mortality rates are high
C. Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions
D. Increasing mortality rates; dropping mortality rates
E. None of the above

A: Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
Stage 3 of the demographic transition demonstrates:

A. Drop in mortality rates; high fertility rates
B. Fertility and mortality rates are high
C. Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions
D. Increasing mortality rates; dropping mortality rates
E. None of the above

C: Dropping fertility rates; more even age and sex distributions
13. The author of On Airs, Waters, and Places was:

A. Socrates
B. Aristotle
C. Hippocrates
D. Pliny the Elder
E. Galen

C: Hippocrates
The author of the First Essay on Population was:

A. John Snow
B. Charles Darwin
C. Thomas Malthus
D. Paul Ehrlich
E. None of the above

C: Thomas Malthus
The effects of rapid growth of the world’s population include

A. Urbanization
B. Overtaxing carrying capacity
C. Food insecurity
D. Loss of biodiversity
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
The environment plays a role in human health through associations with

A. Acute conditions
B. Allergic responses
C. Disability
D. Chronic disease
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
The epidemiologic risk transition is characterized by a

A. Population comprised of predominantly young individuals
B. Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
C. Rapid increase in population
D. High mortality rates
E. None of the above

B: Growing burden of chronic, degenerative diseases
The natural population replacement fertility rate in the U.S. is estimated to be

A. 2.1 births per woman
B. 2.9 births per woman
C. 3.1 births per woman
D. 3.9 births per woman
E. 3.5 births per woman

A: 2.1 births per woman
Which of the following outcomes is not usually associated with world population growth?

A. Prosperity
B. Pollution
C. Poverty
D. Urban crowding
E. Increases in infectious diseases

A: Prosperity
Which of the following statements is untrue about ecosystems?

A. Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems.
B. An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities.
C. A temporary pond in a hollow tree can be an ecosystem.
D. Ecosystems are being degraded rapidly.
E. The interconnected components of an ecosystem are in a steady state.

A: Human beings are not considered to be a part of ecosystems.
According to Healthy People 2010, the social environment includes

A. Air, water, and soil
B. Chemical, biological, and physical agents
C. Housing, transportation, urban development
D. Work-related stress, injury, and violence

D: Work-related stress, injury, and violence
During April, 2009, a Texas community reported 87 cases of H1N1 associated influenza. Ultimately, 9 fatal cases of H1N1 occurred during this same month. There were 4 other fatalities. The CFR associated with H1N1 during April was

A. 13/97 times 100
B. 4/9 times 100
C. 9/87 times 100
D. 13/87 times 100
E. 4/87 times 100

C: 9/87 times 100
Examples of purely observational epidemiologic studies do not usually include

A. Experimental studies
B. Cohort studies
C. Counts
D. Case series
E. Cross-sectional studies

A: Experimental studies
Hill’s criteria of causality include:

A. Strength
B. Consistency
C. Temporality
D. Biological gradient
E. All of the above

E: All of the above(*)
Identify the historical figure who was among the first to expound on the role of environmental factors in causing diseases:

A. Sir Percival Pott
B. John Snow
C. Hippocrates
D. KJ Rothman
E. Socrates

C: Hippocrates
John Snow, in Snow on Cholera

A. Was the father of modern biostatistics
B. Established postulates for transmission of infectious disease
C. Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments
D. Argued that the environment was associated with diseases such as malaria
E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer

C: Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments
Sir Percival Pott, who wrote Chirurgical Observations Relative to

A. Was the father of modern biostatistics
B. Established postulates for transmission of infectious disease
C. Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments
D. Argued that the environment was associated with diseases such as malaria
E. Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer

E: Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer
The contributions of epidemiology to environmental health include

A. Concern with populations
B. Use of observational data
C. Methodology for study designs
D. Descriptive and analytic studies
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
The limitations of environmental epidemiology include the fact that

A. Accurate assessment of exposure is difficult.
B. Environmentally associated diseases often have low incidence and prevalence.
C. Long latency periods often occur between initial exposures and disease outcomes.
D. The effects of exposures are often non-specific.
E. All of the above.

E: All of the above.
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by

A. The case fatality rate (CFR) from that disease in the 0-4 age group
B. A spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year
C. The prevalence for that disease during the past year
D. The incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
E. The number of deaths due to that disease during a given year

D: The incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
The Texas Sharpshooter Effect

A. A new insect pest that is invading the southwest
B. A description of disease according to person variables
C. A description of disease according to etiologic factors
D. One cause of spurious or chance clustering
E. None of the above

D: One cause of spurious or chance clustering
Which of the following observational designs is used for hypothesis testing?

A. Proportionate mortality comparisons
B. Cohort studies
C. Counts
D. Case series
E. Cross-sectional studies

B: Cohort studies
Which of the following statements is true about cohort studies?

A. Subjects are classified according to their exposure.
B. They are a type of longitudinal design.
C. They may be either prospective or retrospective.
D. The measure of association is called relative risk.
E. All of the above

E: All of the above
Which of the following statements is untrue about case-control studies?

A. Exposure to a factor is determined retrospectively.
B. They are a type of longitudinal design.
C. The measure of association is the odds ratio.
D. Exposure levels may be difficult to quantify precisely.
E. They can examine many potential exposures.

B: They are a type of longitudinal design.
When used as a food additive, nitrates and nitrites….
react with other substances to form carcinogens
what was healthy people 2010 goal number 8
“to promote health for all through a healthy environment”
The three Ps
pollution, population, poverty
What chronic disease does environmental health contribute to
cancer (cervical, prostate, breast)
Who was the first person to describe an environmental cause of cancer
Sir Percival Pott, chimney sweep and prostate cancer
Who discovered the source of a cholera outbreak of 1849
John Snow
How many people does foodbourne illness affect each year
one quarter of the population, 9,000 deaths, costs 5 billion annually
US department of agriculture
regulate the safety of meat and poultry products
Food and drug administration
US agency charged with regulation and enforcement of food safety
]]>

Related Essay Examples