Emergency Care-Chapter 20-Cardiac Emergencies-

4 heart valves
tricuspid, bicuspid (mitrosol), pulmonary, aortic

cardiopulmonary resuscitation
actions taken to revive a person by keeping the person’s heart and lungs working

defibrillation
delivery of an electrical shock to stop the fibrillation of heart muscles and restore a normal heart rhythm

acute coronary syndrome (cardiac compromise)
a blanket term used to represent any symptoms related to lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the heart muscles

ischemia
hypoxia for the heart; will result in tissue damage

the heart fails because of 2 functions
electrical, mechanical or both

cardiac compromise pain radiates
along the arms, down to upper abdomen, or up to the jaw; patients complain of radiation to the left arm more than the right

dyspnea
shortness of breath; labored or difficult breathing

bradycardia
heart rate below 60

tachcardia
heart rate above 100

what drugs can I administer
oxygen, aspirin, nitroglycerin

what do I need to administer those drugs
Online medical direction for aspirin and nitroglycerin

dose of aspirin
81 mg cheweable *4 or 325 mg

dose of nitroglycerin
0.4 mg

acute coronary syndrome: what position
place in position of comfort, typically sitting up. Except, those who are hypotensive (systolic below 90-100) will feel better lying down.

Scan 20-2 on page 476
GREAT for drugs

7 types of cardiac conditions
coronary artery disease, aneurysm, electrical or mechanical malfunctions, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure

coronary artery disease
diseases that affect the arteries of the heart

CAD: result of
fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries, plaque, calcium hardened

CAD: thrombus
a clot formed of blood and plaque attached to the inner wall of an artery or vein

CAD: occlusion
blockage, cutting off blood flow

CAD: embolism
blockage of a vessel by a clot or foreign material brought to the site by the blood current, from upstream

aneurysm
the dilation, or ballooning, of a weakened section of the wall of an artery

Aneurysm: if ruptures
tissues beyond the rupture can be damaged because the oxygenated blood they need is escaping and not reaching the tissue. Death from shock can occur very quickly

dysrhythmia
an irregular, absent heart rhythm. Brady or tachycardia, and activity with no pulse.

mechanical malfunctions of the heart
hypoxia causes death of parts of the myocardium. The dead area could be a mechanical portion (valves, muscle strength)

angina pectoris
pain in the chest due to reduced blood supply to the heart and a portion of the heart muscle is hypoxic

angina pectoris: onset then what?
comes on after stress or exertion, goes away within minutes after no more exertion

nitroglycerin
medication that dilates the blood vessels

acute myocardial infarction
the condition in which a portion of the myocardium dies as a result of oxygen starvation; often called a heart attack by laypersons

sudden death
a cardiac arrest that occurs within 2 hours of the onset of symptoms. The patient may have no prior symptoms of coronary artery disease

AMI: treatments
fibrinolytics, balloon angioplasty or balloon catheterization, beta blocker

fibrinolytics
to dissolve the clot that is blocking the coronary artery

angioplasty or catheterization
insert a catheter with a balloon that can be inflated to reopen circulation to the heart

beta blocker
slows the heart and makes it beat less strongly

congestive heart failure
the failure of the heart to pump efficiently, leading to excessive blood or fluids in the lungs, the body, or both

edema
swelling resulting from a buildup of fluid in the tissues

pulmonary edema
accumulation of fluid in the lungs

when alveoli burst from edema you will hear
crackling or bubby lung sounds called rales

pedal edema
accumulation of fluid in the feet or ankles

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