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Healthy People provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans.
Healthy people 2020
Major health policy creation or changes—for the most part, governmental policy that affects healthcare delivery in a given place; affect the populations for which nurses provide care and the conditions under which they provide it
Health care reform
A document jointly developed by the ANA and the National League for Nursing (NLN) that was significant in terms of its expression of nursing’s values and in furthering an understanding of the profession itself. Values such as health services for all, illness prevention, and wellness were identified as prominent concerns.
Nursing Agenda for health care reform
Begins when pathology is involved and is aimed at early detection through diagnosis and prompt treatment. This level of prevention is aimed at halting the pathological process, thereby shortening its duration and severity and getting the patient back to a normal state of functioning.
Secondary Prevention
The practice of promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences. The practice is population-focused, with the goals of promoting health and preventing disease and disability for all people through the creation of conditions in which people can be healthy.
Public Health Nursing
A market approach based on managed competition as a major strategy to contain healthcare costs.
Managed care
Consists of activities designed around rehabilitation of a person with a permanent, irreversible condition. The goal of tertiary prevention goes beyond halting the disease process to restoring the person to an optimal level of functioning within the constraints of the disability.
Tertiary Prevention
A group of people who have at least one thing in common and who may or may not interact with each other
Population
A group of people who share something in common, who interact with one another, and who may exhibit a commitment to one another.
Community
Recognized as the founder of modern professional nursing, and for developing the first school of nursing.
Florence Nightingale
Created to increase access to affordable and accessible health care for millions of uninsured and underinsured Americans, with an emphasis on preventive health care, as well as protections for citizens from insurance companies denying coverage due to preexisting conditions and high-risk health conditions. The ACA’s purpose is twofold: (1) to increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance and (2) to decrease the cost of health care.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
The learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a particular group that guide their thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways.
Culture
Founded in 1948 through a special agreement with the United Nations, it responsible for directing and coordinating international health. The focus of WHO’s work is producing and disseminating global health standards and guidelines, helping countries to address public health issues, and supporting health research. Its primary objective is for all people to attain the highest possible level of health.
World Health Organization
Those people who are essentially healthy but whose health status could be improved or protected.
Population of interest
Measures that focus on prevention of health problems before they occur; it is not therapeutic, which means that it does not consist of symptom identification and use of the typical therapeutic skills of the nurse.
Primary Prevention
The science that provides community and public health with a framework for addressing the primary, secondary, and tertiary health needs for a population and directs community health nursing practice
epidemiology
Care provided primarily at the individual and family levels, which contribute to the health of the community; often refers to nursing care provided outside of acute care settings.
Community-based nursing
All the surroundings and conditions that affect the health of individuals, families, and communities. The environment has many different components, including social, cultural, political, economic, and ecological factors.
enviornment
A systematic process of delivering nursing care to improve the health of an entire community.
Community Health Nursing
A growing practice arena for nurses. Within the managed care environment, care management attempts to provide more timely and coordinated care for individuals.
Care management
A state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Health
Refers to interventions aimed at health promotion and disease prevention that shape a community’s overall health status.
Population-focused care
The delivery of health services in the home setting for purposes of restoring or maintaining the health of individuals and families.
home health care
The study of how we should behave, or how to determine the right thing to do in our interactions with others.
Ethics
Interpret community- and population-level data to plan interventions more appropriately and efficiently to work within the limited resources of the present healthcare environment.
community and population focused care
An exercise by which a collaborative partnership gathers information on the current strengths, concerns, and conditions of children, families, and the community.
community assessment
Identification of “labels” or names for the health problems in the community.
community health diagnosis
A person who gives information of which they have direct knowledge and experience to a researcher.
Primary Informant
The health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group.
population health
A process in which the components of a community—families, organizations, and populations—are able to collaborate effectively in identifying the problems and needs of the community, achieving a working consensus on goals and priorities, agreeing on ways and means to implement the agreed-on goals, and collaborating effectively in the required action.
community competency
Analysis of records, documents, and other previously collected data that may already exist in the form of census data, historical accounts, diaries, previous studies of the community or aggregate, court records, minutes from community meetings, and research studies on population risks.
Secondary data
These observations through the window of an automobile are a way of collecting information about a community’s environment. As an initial data-collection technique, a windshield survey often reveals common characteristics about how people live (e.g., transportation primarily by automobile, little pedestrian traffic), where they live, and the type of housing they live in.
windshield surveys
Analysis of records, documents, and other previously collected data.
secondary analysis of existing data
A qualitative approach to learning about subgroups within the population regarding sociocultural and other specific characteristics. Members of a focus group differ from other small groups in that the members are usually chosen to be fairly homogenous in regard to specific characteristics, such as gender, age, or other social variables. By being highly selective about the membership of a focus group, the nurse can learn a great deal about that particular subpopulation’s needs and perceptions about viable, acceptable solutions to health problems.
focus groups
Conceptualizing the entire community as an individual in order to develop an appropriate level of intervention to improve health. Health problems of communities are more readily understood by clinicians when analyzed in the same way that clinicians analyze the health problems of individual patients.
community as patient
During this phase priorities are established, goals and objectives are identified based on those priorities, and community-focused interventions are developed.
planning phase
Describes communities and populations; a measure of vital statistics, leading causes of death, mental health statistics, and crime rates.
status
Informant interviews involve directly questioning community residents.
informant interviews
A strategy for community members to voice their views.
community forums
A measure of community or population health that reflects how well a community/population functions to keep healthy.
process
Healthcare interventions that target communities—groups of people who share something in common, who interact with one another, and who may exhibit a commitment to one another.
community focused intervention
Evaluation conducted to better understand the demographic, political, economic, and health system factors affecting a population.
population assessment
Policies or programs that shift the distribution of health risk by addressing the underlying social, economic and environmental conditions.
population level interventions
The formal and informal leaders in the community who represent a cross section of age groups and ethnic groups. They include town officials, elected members, student and group leaders, and informal “spokespersons” such as barbers or postal carriers.
key informant
The strategic use of the mass media to advance healthy public policy by applying pressure to legislators and other policymakers.
media advocacy
A social-action process in which individuals and groups act to gain mastery over their lives in the context of changing their social and political environment; it involves a participatory educational process in which people are not just the recipients of political, educational, or healthcare projects, but become active participants in naming their problems and proposing solutions.
community empowerment
A group of health professionals and community leaders who work together to achieve community-focused interventions.
Collaborative arrangment
The status, structure, and process of communities.
healthy communities
Theoretical perspectives for understanding community dynamics and assessing the needs and strengths or assets of communities. In addition to providing guidance on the criteria or systems to be assessed when the patient is a community, these theoretical perspectives provide guidance for the development of community diagnoses, program planning, and the process for data collection, analysis, and dissemination of the findings.
community assessment frameworks and models
In constructed surveys, community or aggregate members in a random sample of the population provide answers to written or oral questions. This technique is costly and time-consuming and is used only when other resources have been exhausted.
Constructed surveys
Purposefully looking and listening for significant events that are taking place in the community.
observation
Involves manipulating the driving and restraining forces in ways that increase the likelihood of positive changes in the population. An underlying assumption of this process is that the community or population must participate in the planning of change.
Healthy change
Aspects of a community’s or population’s health such as health organizations, health professionals, utilization rates of health services and facilities, and characteristics of the community structure itself. How the community or population is structured is reflected in such measures as socioeconomic and educational levels; demographics of race, age, and gender; and the ways in which the members of a community access and use resources related to health.

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