Cognitive Psychology 2…Chapter 5

H.M. why did he have surgery?
Henry Gustav Molaison….damaged his hippocampus in both hemispheres….had many seizures…

Was H.M.’s surgery successful?
Yes and no…he lived until 2008…but couldn’t put things in his long term memoir.

Which part of H.M’s brain was removed?
Hippocampus in both hemispheres.

How was H.M’s memory affected?
He couldn’t store things in long term memory and had amnesia for past events.

What could H. M. learn?
Working memory was bueno:
-5-9 digits could be stored
-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning

What couldn’t he learn?
-general knowledge
-life memories
-reflex learning

What is consolidation?
the process of putting new information into permanent storage.

What does H.M.’s case suggest about memory?
Difference between long term and short term memory.

Episodic Memory:
memories of events that happen to a person

Semantic Memory:
organized knowledge about the world (knowing presidents, tv shows, etc.)

Procedural Memory:
Knowledge about how to do something (riding a bike or knitting)

Why make distinctions between LTM?
There are different types of memories that have different characteristics, and different brain injuries affect different memories.

getting information into storage

Holding information

Geting information out of storage

Depth of Processing?
Deep meaningful information processing leads to more permanent retention than shallow sensory processing.

Shallow quality of a word example?
visual appearance or sound of the word.

Deep quality of a word?
the meaning of the word

What is the classic test of depth of processing
Ask subjects yes/no questions about words
Force shallow or deep processing
Flash the word on a screen, then (not
told ahead of time that they would be
Remembered the fill in sentence words
better than the physical characteristic

Why memory is better for deep words:
(1) Distinctiveness
(2) Elaboration

a stimulus is different than other memories

Elaborative Rehearsal :
processing new information by associating it with other concepts in permanent memory.

–> most efficient with getting info into LTM

• Maintenance Rehearsal:
repeating a stimulus
–>Less likely to be stored permanently
than with elaborative rehearsal
–>Synesthesia- certain senses associated
with stimulus (colors with words → use

How was depth of processing tested with pictures of faces?
–>Subjects shown many photos of
subjects and asked to make judgments
about either the width of the nose, or
honestly of the person
–>Later asked to identify which of the
faces they were shown

Results of pictures of faces?
Correctly recognized more faces judged for honesty because of distinctiveness (width of nose isn’t distinctively different)

Self- Reference Effect:
Enhancement of long-term memory by relating material to personal experiences.

Explanation of Self- Reference Effect:
1) The self has a rich set of cues that allows
for elaboration and distinctiveness.
–> We have a complex network about
2)Instructions encourage people to see how
their traits are related to one another.
–>More cues are easier to retrieve
3) We may rehearse material more if it is
related to us
–> Elaborative rehearsal.

Encoding Specificity Principle:
Recall is better if the retrieval contexts is similar to the encoding context.

Context usually has a bigger effect on recall than on recognition.

reproduction of items that had been learned earlier
• Few memory cues
• Ex: Fill in blank tests, essay questions,
knowing someone’s name

Identification of items that had been presented at an earlier time
• More memory cues to go off of and
spark your memory…identify the right
• Ex: Multiple choice, recognizing a face
Real life is often recall in

For Context to have affect?
1) type of task matters
2)other learning cues should be weak
3)bigger effect on older memories

Why do context effect exist?
It lets us easily recall information for a given situation we are in right meow!….if you’re in a certain situation you easily can recall some information you need to take action at the present time.
• Efficient
• Allows for survival

reaction to a specific stimulus

Pollyanna Principle:
pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items.

Mood Congruence:
Memory is better when the material to be learned is similar to the persons current mood
• It’s an encoding phenomena
Good mood: easy to learn nice items
Bad mood: easier to learn nasty items

Mood-Dependent Memory
people are more likely to remember material if their mood at the time of retrieval matches the mood they were in when they originally learned the material.

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