Chapter 25 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (book)

maxillofacial
oral and ________ surgery is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, injuries, and malformations

surgical scalpels
are surgical knives used to incise or excise soft tissue precisely with the least amount of trauma

retractors
used to deflected tissue from the surgical site so that the view is unobstructed

tissue retractors
are supplied in forceps (hinged) style

tissue forceps
cotton-pliers

cheek retractors and lip retractor
are used to hold the patients cheeks away from the operating site

tongue retractors
are placed between the border of the tongue and the lingual surfaces of the teeth

mouth props
are used to prevent the patient’s mouth from closing during the procedure

hemostats
have multiple uses during surgical procedures. they are used to retract tissue, remove small root tips, clamp off blood vessels, and grasp loose objects

needle holders
are similar to hemostats and function in much the same manner. they are forceps with straight beaks, but needle-holder beaks are shorter than hemostat beaks

surgical scissors
are used to cut sutures and to trim soft tissue

surgical aspirating tips
are made of metal or plastic. the metal tips are sterilizable, while the plastic tips are discarded after one use

surgical curettes
are used for curettage and debridement of the socket or diseased tissue

surgical chisels
are used to remove or shape bone

surgical mallet
is used wit the chisel

rongeurs
are hinged forceps with springs in the handle

surgical nome files
are usually double-ended instruments. they are supplied in various sizes and shapes

periosteal elevator
often used to detach the periosteum (bone covering) and gingival tissues from around the tooth prior to the use of extraction forceps

mucoperiosteum
(mucosa and periosteum)

elevators
are used by the surgeon to loosen and remove teeth, retained roots, and root fragments

apical elevators
are similar to the elevators with the large handle but have smaller working ends

root tip picks
or elevators are even thinner and longer than apical elevators

extraction forceps
are used to remove teeth from the alveolar bone

universal forceps
can be used on any of the four quadrants

screening techniques such as VELscope and the ViziLite
these systems inspect for disease including precancerous and cancerous areas

biopsy
when the dentist finds a suspicious lesion or area they will want a _____________ performed to gain further information

excisional biopsy
involves removal of the lesion completely, including a border of the normal tissue surrounding it

exfoliative cytology
or “smear biopsy” involves removal of a layer of cells from the surface of the lesion

oral brush biopsy
this technique involves using a small sterile brush to “wipe” the surface of the lesion firmly enough to remove the overlying keratin layer until pink tissue or pinpoint bleeding is evident

dental implants
have a great success rate, with the variance in success coming from where the implants are placed and what they do

osseointegration
an implant fuses with the bone tissue through a biologic bonding process

surgical stent
this is placed over the tissues during surgery to guide the dentist in placing the implants

load
often one of the factors in selecting the techniques is the amount of _______ the implant can tolerate and still be successful

one-stage technique
the implant is inserted into the bone but the extruding end is not covered with gingival tissue

healing cap
is a metal cap/screw that fits on the dental implant and keeps tissue and debris from getting into the implant

two-stage technique
the implant is placed into the bone and gingival tissue is sutured into place to cover the implant

subperiosteal implant
is often used on patients whose dentures have failed because the alveolar bone has atrophies (wasted away)

endosteal implants
are the most common types of implants placed with skill and precision these implants are surgically placed directly in the bone

mini dental implants (MDI)
are smaller in diameter and narrower than other dental implants

alveolitis or dry socket
is the most common complication following an extraction. the loss of blood clot leaves a dry socket, which is painful

crepitus
cracking sound

tinnitus
ringing or tinkling sound

arthroscopy
is surgery that involves the surgeon inserting a tiny instrument through a small incision to remove adhesions and place anti-inflammatory agents

arthrocentesis
is the irrigation of the joint, a minimally invasive procedure used to treat TMJ disease

arthroplasty
refers to surgery to relieve pain and restore range of motion by realigning or reconstructing a joint and includes several types of surgeries for the TMJ

Disk repositioning
under general anesthetic the surgeon makes an incision and moves the displaced disk back to its original position and stitches it in place

discectomy
is the surgical removal of the disk. When the disk has become deteriorated and damaged and is out of place or popping back and forth

articular eminence recontouring
is performed when the articular eminence part of the joint is too steep or too deep and as a result to much pressure is put on the condyle

TMJ replacement
if a joint is badly damaged and cannot be repaired, it is removed and replaced

orthognathic surgery
patients who require extensive surgical procedures such as TMJ surgery or ________. (surgery involving te relationship of the dental arches and/or the supporting bones of the face

simple suture
the most widely used suture stitch, is very versatile, and is used in many areas of the mouth

continuous simple suture
is placed when there have been multiple extractions

sling suture
is used for interproximal suturing

continuous sling suture
is placed where a large flap involving several teeth has been used

horizontal mattress suture
if the stitch, or bite, is taken horizontally

vertical mattress suture
if the stitch is taken vertically

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