a. An integration of the best available nursing expertise
b. Derived from community principles to fit the area where it is practiced
c. A health endeavor that makes informed use of evidence
d. Comprised of only public health records
Evidence-based public health is a health endeavor that makes informed use of evidence.
a. Not all sources of information are reliable.
b. Authority always leads to faulty decision making.
c. Ethical knowledge is not taken into account.
d. Trial and error has lead to poor outcomes.
Using the sources of knowledge listed in the other options does not consistently produce desired outcomes.
a. Evidence-based practice
b. Internal evidence
c. Research utilization
d. External evidence
Internal evidence refers to the use of the nurses clinical experiences and the clients preferences.
b. Great Britain
c. The United States
The term evidence-based was first attributed to Gordon Gyatt, a Canadian physician at McMaster University in 1992.
a. Evidence-based nursing practice
b. The science of medicine
c. Evidenced-based medicine
d. Research utilization
Research utilization projects in the 1970s provided a guide to clinical practice.
a. Evidence-based practice
b. Action research
c. Systematic review
d. Best practices
A systematic review is a summary of the research evidence that relates to a specific question and to the effects of an intervention.
a. Clinical expertise
b. Randomized controlled trials
c. Case studies
d. Systematic review
The double blind randomized controlled trial generally provides the highest level of evidence followed by other randomized controlled trials.
a. Randomness, sample size, and blinding
b. Selection, variables, and description
c. Nursing, medicine, and physiology
d. Quality, quantity, and consistency
Quality, quantity, and consistency are the three domains for evaluating systems.
a. The sample size is small
b. The outcomes must be accurately measured
c. Using a control group
d. Studying the attrition rate
Blinding refers to a procedure where the researcher or evaluator does not know which participants are in the experimental or control group.
a. Results of randomized controlled trials
b. A description of the methods used to search for evidence
c. Data compiled on a particular question
d. An in-depth review of the literature completed by one person
A systematic review is usually done by more than one person and describes the methods used to search for the evidence. It is a method of identifying, appraising, and synthesizing research evidence to evaluate and interpret all available research relevant to a particular research question.
a. Randomized clinical trials
b. Qualitative studies
c. Quantitative studies
d. Multiple research methods
Evidence from multiple research methods has the potential to enrich the application of evidence and improve nursing practice.
a. Integrating the evidence with clinical expertise
b. Cultivating a spirit of inquiry
c. Asking clinical questions
d. Searching for the best evidence
According to Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt et al., the first step is step 0: cultivating a spirit of inquiry.
a. Scientific literature found in systematic reviews
b. Double-blind randomized controlled trial
c. Quasi-experimental studies
d. Expert opinion
Because it is difficult to find or perform randomized controlled trials in the community, other types of evidence have been highlighted as the best evidence in public health literature upon which to base evidence-based public health (EBPH) practice; scientific literature found in systematic reviews is one type that is recommended. Although randomized controlled trials are the highest level of evidence, it would not be possible to implement this type of study when studying smoking cessation.
a. Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Project
c. Cochrane Public Health Group (PHRG)
d. Task Force on Community Preventive Services
The PHRG works with contributors to produce and publish Cochrane reviews of the effects of population-level public health interventions. The PHRG undertakes systematic reviews of the effects of public health interventions to improve health and other outcomes at the population level, not those targeted at individuals.
a. Lack of available time
b. Inferior quality of available research
c. Unwillingness of organizations to fund research
d. Inability to understand the evidence
All of these are barriers to evidence-based practice.