ch.9 nutrition exam

positive vs negative energy balance
positive energy balance equals weight gains, negative energy balance leads to weight loss

visceral adipose tissue located in the abdomen poses
heart problem

when a person loses weight, changes in body fat include
-waist circumference
-apple vs pear

waist circumference and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes
-men 40 inches or greater
-women 35 inches or greater

the hypothalamus is the region of the brain that regulates
hunger and satiety

hunger vs appetite
hunger describes a psychological drive to consume food, whereas appetite describes a psychological desire for food

stimulated by smell

3 true statements about ghrelin
1. Referred as the hunger hormone
2. blood levels of ghrelin decrease following a meal
3. if someone overproduced ghrelin, that person would not experience a feeling of satiety after a meal

gastric bypass surgery entails
diminishing the size of the stomach and bypassing a segment of the small intestines

3 components of total energy expenditure
1. basal metabolism
2. physical activity
3. thermic effect of food

BMR is the amount of energy expended per hour to
carry out basic functions such as breathing and beating of the heart

what percentage of TEE is BMR

what factors affect BMR
body shape, body consumption, age, sex, nutritional status and genetics

Body mass index
a persons weight divided by the square of their height

gold standard for assessing body consumption
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

leptin participates in body weight regulation
-communicates energy reverses to the brain
-reflects change in adipose tissue
-defects in leptin signaling pathways

set point theory
when someone gains weight beyond his or her set point, signals are produced that cause an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake such that weight loss is induced

3 components of a healthy weight loss program
1. set reasonable goals
2. choose nutritious foods in moderation
3. increase energy expenditure

1-2 pounds per week
if a friend of yours wants to lose 15 pounds in 2 weeks on a very low calorie diet, what might you suggest is a more realistic goal?

the premise of low fat, high carbohydrate weight-loss diets
1. lower fat intake results in lower energy intake since fat contains more calories than carbohydrates or protein
2. high fat foods are more flavorful leading to a greater intake
3. storage fat is extremely efficient; therefore consuming less means less efficient fat storage

most successful weight loss strategy is to combine
a reduction in energy intake with an increase in daily physical activity

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