Blood Pressure — Funds Quiz

4 Vital Signs
1.) Body temperature
2.) Pulse
3.) Respiratory rates
4.) Blood pressure

Values of significance in vital signs
1.) Body temp- 98.6*F
2.) Pulse- Normal = 60-100
3.) Respiratory rates- Normal = 14-20

Normal Blood Pressure
Systolic- <120 mmHg Diastolic- <80 mmHg

Prehypertension (High normal)
Systolic= 120-139 mmHg
Diastolic= 80-89 mmHg

Stage 1
Systolic= 140-159 mmHg
Diastolic = 90-99 mmHg
Stage 2
Systolic= >160 mmHg
Diastolic= >100 mmHg

Vital signs contributes to…
The proper systemic evaluation of a patient in conjunction with the complete medical history.

Normal body temperature
-Adults- 98.6 *F
-Older adults (70 or over)- 96.8*F
1st Year: 99.1*F
4th Year: 99.4*F
5th Year: 98.6*F
12th Year: 98.0*F

Temperature variations
1.) Fever (pyrexia) values OVER 99.5*F
2.) Hyperthermia values OVER 105.8*F
3.) Hypothermia values BELOW 96.0*F

Factors that alter body temperature
1.) Time of the day (highest in late afternoon; low during sleep and early morning)
2.) Temporary increase (excercise)
3.) Pathologic states (infection)
4.) Decrease (starvation)

Locations for determining temperature
-Medical/hospital applications

Types of thermometers
1.) Electronic with digital readout
2.) Tympanic
3.) Mercury in glass: oral – blue tip; rectal – red tip
4.) Disposable single-use chemical strip

Care of patient with temp elevation
Over 105.8 *F
– Treat as a medical emergency
– Check possible temp. cause, review history, postpone oral care

-The intermittent throbbing sensation felt when the fingers are pressed against an artery
-The result of the alternate expansion and contraction of an artery as a wave of clood is forced out from the heart

Pulse rate
Count of the heartbeats

Normal pulse rates
1.) Adults (NO absolute normal)= 60-100 bpm
2.) Children
In utero – 150 bpm
At birth – 130 bpm
2nd year- 105 bpm
4th year- 90 bpm
10th year- 70 bpm

Factors that influence pulse rate
-Increased pulse: Excercise, stimulants, eating, heat/cold
-Decreased pulse: Sleep, depressants, fasting
-Emergency situations: Heart failure, cardiac arrest

Sites for determining pulse rate
-Radial pulse
-Temporal artery/facial artery
-Carotid pulse
-Brachial pulse

-Function is to supply oxygen to the tissure and to eliminate CO2
-Variations may be shown in rate, rhythm, depth, & quality
**A respiration is one breath taken in and let out!**

Normal respiratory rate
1.) Adults= 14-20 per min
2.) Children
1st year- 30/min
2nd year- 25/min
8th year- 20/min
15th year- 18/min

Factors that influence respirations
-Increased respiration: work, excercise, excitement, shock
-Decreased respiration: sleep, pulmonary insufficiency
-Emergency situations: heart problems

Factors to observe during respirations
1.) Depth
2.) Rhythm
3.) Quality
4.) Sounds
5.) Position of patient

Blood pressure
-The force exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls
-Changing constantly

Components of blood pressure
1.) Systolic- peak/highest pressure= Ventricular contraction
2.) Diastolic- Lowest pressure= Ventricular relaxation
3.) Pulse pressure- difference b/w systolic and diastolic pressures= less than 40 mmHg
** 120/80 mmHg

Blood pressure depends on:
1.) Force of th heartbeat
2.) Peripheral resistance
3.) Volume of blood in the circulatory system

Sphygmomanometer (blood pressure machine)
*Most preferred!
-Consists of inflatable cuff, 2 tubes: 1 connected to pressure hand control bulb and other to pressure gauge
1.) Cuff
-Nonelastic material w/velcro overlap
*Diameter of arm, not age of patient, determines the
size of the cuff selected*
2.) Mercury Manometer
-Gauges are marked w/long lines at each 10 mmHg
**When cuff is too narrow, bp is too high; when cuff is too wide, bp is too low**

Stethoscope (listening aid)
-Consists of endpiece
1.) Types of endpieces: bell-shaped or flat
2.) Care of earpieces: clean by rubbing

Procedure for determining blood pressure
1.) Prepare patient
2.) Apply cuff
3.) Locate radial pulse
4.) Position stethoscope endpiece- in antecubital fossa
5.) Inflate cuff- inflate until radial pulse stops, & pump 20/30 mmHg beyond where pulse was no longer felt
—> Max. Inflation Level (MIL)
6.) Deflate cuff gradually- 2 to 3 mm per second, systole: (1st sound) “tap tap”
7.) Repeat for confirmation- wait 2-3 mins
8.) Record- in fraction

Blood pressure follow-up
-Within a normal range = rechecked w/in 2 years
-Recc. for persons at increased risk for hypertension = rechecked w/in 1 year

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