an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
confirmed that stress response is part of unified mind-body system
epinephrine; norepinephrine; adrenal
Emotion-arousing incidents all trigger an outpouring of the stress hormones _____ and _____ from the ______ glands.
fight or flight
When alerted by any of a number of brain pathways, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration, diverts blood form digestion to the skeletal muscles, dulls pain, and releases sugar and fat form the body’s stores–all to prepare the body for the _______ response.
On orders from the cerebral cortex, the outer part of the adrenal glands secretes ________ stress hormones such as ______.
On orders from the ______ cortex, the outer part of the _____ glands secretes glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisol.
general adaptation syndrome
Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages–alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
In Phase 1 of GAS, you experience an _______.
In Phase 2 of GAS, you experience ______.
In Phase 3 of GAS, you experience ________.
Although the human body comes designed to cope with _____ stress, _____ stress can produce physical deterioration.
People who have experienced prolonged flood of stress hormones, due to sustained child abuse, combat, or endocrine disease, usually have a shrunken ________, the inner brain structure vital to laying down explicit memories.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.
257 men had suffered heart attacks; 60 percent of them were _____.
literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
agent of the immune system that identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders
stronger; less; more
Women are immunologically ____ than men. This makes them ____ susceptible to infections but ____ susceptible to self-attacking diseases, such as lupus and multiple sclerosis.
stress; negative emotions
____ and _________ have been linked to cancer’s rate of progression.
If conditioning affects the body’s overt physiological responses, might it affect the immune system as well? _____ and ______ discovered that the answer is yes.
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
attempting to alleviate stress directly–by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one’s stress reaction
Perceiving a loss of ____, we become vulnerable to ill health.
high __________ predicts a lower risk of heart and respiratory diseases.
blood pressure; heart bypass
Optimists respond to stress with smaller increases in ______, and they recover more quickly from _______ surgery.
Optimists tend to ____ pessimists.
eat; exercise; sleep; smoke
People with supportive friends and marriage partners ___ better, _____ more, ____ better, and ____ less, and therefore cope with stress more effectively.
Talking about a stressful event can temporarily ____ people, but in the long run it ____ them.
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
norepinephrine, serotonin; endorphins
Exercise orders up mood-boosing chemicals such as _______, _____, and the ______.
Exercise enhances _____ abilities, such as ______.
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Exercise promotes the growth of new _________.
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such s blood pressure or muscle tension.
complementary and alternative medicine
unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
when experienced meditators decrease their blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen consumption and raise their fingertip temperature
parietal lobe; frontal lobe
During meditation, a part of the _________ that tracks where we are in space is less active than usual, and a _______ rare involved in focused attention is more active than usual.
Several new studies find the __________ correlation among men alone, and even more strongly among women.
Smoking is a ______ disease.
Smokers and nonsmokers tend to differ in a gene that influences responses to the neurotransmitter _____.
All but ____ of participants in treatments to stop smoking eventually succumb to the habit again.
___ of Americans who have ever smoked have quit.
The male smoking rate now barely ___ that of women.
Once the number of fat cells in a person’s body _______, it never _____.
On a diet, fat cells may ____, but they never _____.
We require less food to ______ our weight than we did to ____ it.
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