Anatomy: Nervous System & Local Anesthesia Ch 8&9

v1 ophthalmic, lacrimal, trigeminal, greater petrosal, facial
the nerves that allow us to cry are _______________ and __________________ nerve from the _________________ nerve and the ______________ ________________ nerve from the ____________ nerve.

auriculotemporal nerve of trigeminal and lesser petrosal nerve of glossopharyngeal
what cranial nerves innervate the parotid gland?

chorda tympani nerve of facial and lingual nerve of trigeminal
which cranial nerves innervate the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands?

greater petrosal, facial
the ___________ _____________ nerve of the _____________ nerve innervates the minor salivary glands
-associated to the hard and soft palate
-von Ebner’s buccal/labial lingual mucosa

trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, hypoglossal
which cranial nerves innervate the tongue?

hypoglossal nerve (XII)
which cranial nerve provides movement to the tongue?

lingual nerve of trigeminal (V), chorda tympani nerve of facial (VII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (base)
what cranial nerves provide general sensation to the tongue?

chorda tympani nerve of facial, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus
what cranial nerves provide taste sensation to the tongue?

greater petrosal nerve, chorda tympani nerve
what are the mixed facial nerve divisions?

posterior auricular nerve, stylohyoid nerve, posterior digastric nerve
what are the efferent facial nerve divisions?

temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
what are the facial nerve simple branches to the muscles of facial expression (not separate nerves) originate in the parotid gland

facial paralysis, transient, permanent
____________ _____________ can be unilateral/bilateral or ________________/_____________

stroke, trauma, brain injury
what three things can possibly cause facial paralysis?

transient facial paralysis
caused by an incorrectly administered IANB

drooping, dribbling, increased, infection
transient facial paralysis will present with ___________ eyebrow/eyelid/labial commissure, _______________ (may not be able to eat/talk well), _______________ susceptibility to _____________.

expression, close, whistle
when a patient has transient facial paralysis, they cannot show _________________, ___________ their eyes, or ________________.

Bell’s Palsy
unknown cause – thought to be from a virus

paralysis
occurs in one or more of the branches of the facial nerve

anti-virals (botox), inflammatory drugs, physical therapy
what are 3 treatments for Bell’s Palsy?

Tic douloureux, right
another name for the trigeminal neuralgia
It occurs on the ____________ side of the face and is usually more affected than the left.

v2 maxillary and v3 mandibular of trigeminal
trigeminal neuralgia involves what nerve and branches?

tics, spasms, eyes, ala
in trigeminal neuralgia, excruciating painful _____ or short-term muscle ______________ occur often near the _________ or _______.

anti-depressant drugs, anti-convulsant drugs, surgery, neurectomy, chemical (alcohol) injection
what are 5 treatments for trigeminal neuralgia?

anterior superior alveolar (ASA)
what nerve block has crossover anesthesia?

greater palatine block (GP) and nasopalatine block (NP)
what nerve blocks use pressure anesthesia?

inferior alveolar block (IA)
what nerve block inserts at the lingula on the mandible?

parotid
The Inferior alveolar block (IA) can anesthetize the ______________ gland by mistake

posterior superior alveolar block
anesthetizes the maxillary molars
-except mesiobuccal cusp of 1st molar & associated tissue

greater palatine block
anesthetizes the posterior palatal gingiva and periodontium of premolars and molars

anterior superior alveolar block
anesthetizes the central and lateral incisors, canines and associated tissue

middle superior alveolar block
anesthetizes the maxillary premolars, mesiobuccal root of first molar and associated tissue

infraorbital block
anesthetizes the maxillary anterior teeth and premolars, as well as the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar in approximately 28% of cases

nasopalatine block
anesthetizes the anterior hard palate and palatal periodontium and gingiva of maxillary anterior teeth bilaterally

anterior middle superior alveolar block
anesthetizes the maxillary anterior teeth and premolars
-ASA, MSA-not mesiobuccal root of 1st molar), NP, GP
-facial periodontium & gingiva of anesthetized teeth to midline; hard palate & palatal periodontium & gingiva of ipsilateral maxillary posterior teeth & maxillary anterior teeth bilaterally
-no regional soft tissue anesthesia of upper lip & face

inferior alveolar block
anesthetizes the mandibular teeth to the midline
-mandibular quadrant except for buccal molar gingiva
-inferior alveolar, mental, incisive, lingual nerve

buccal block
anesthetizes buccal periodontium & gingiva of mandibular molars

mental block
anesthetizes the chin, lower lip, tissues of mandibular premolars & anterior teeth

incisive block
anesthetizes the mandibular anterior teeth & premolars to the midline
-facial periodontium & gingiva
-lower lip and skin of chin to midline
-mental & incisive nerve

Gow-Gates mandibular block
anesthetizes the inferior alveolar nerve, lingual, (long) buccal, mental, incisive, mylohyoid, auriculotemporal nerves
-mandibular teeth to midline

vazirani-akinosi mandibular block
anesthetizes the inferior alveolar nerve, lingual, mental, incisive, mylohyoid nerves
-mandibular teeth to midline

buccal nerve
which nerve is not anesthetized during an inferior alveolar local anesthetic block?

upper lip, side of nose, lower eyelid
what regions are usually anesthetized during an infraorbital local anesthetic block?

middle superior alveolar block
if the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary 1st molar is not anesthetized by a PSA block, the dental professional should additionally administer what block?

coronoid notch
which of the following is an important landmark to locate before administering an inferior alveolar block?

maxillary second or third molar
the injection site for the greater palatine local anesthetic block is usually located on the palate near what?

nasopalatine block
if an extraction of a permanent maxillary lateral incisor is scheduled, which of the following local anesthetic blocks needs to be administered?

inferior alveolar block
transient facial paralysis can occur with which incorrectly administered local anesthetic block?

inferior alveolar block
which local anesthetic block anesthetizes the largest intraoral area?

needle tip is too far anteriorly on mandibular ramus
what situation can occur if bone is contacted immediately after the needle is inserted into the soft tissue when administering an inferior alveolar block?

facial surface of maxillary anterior sextant
what location is the outcome most clinically effective when using a supraperiosteal injection of local anesthetic?

bilateral incisive block
if working within the mandibular anterior sextant on the exposed roots of the teeth, which local anesthetic block is most clinically effective and comfortable for the patient?

buccal block
which of the following blocks anesthetizes the associated buccal periodontium & gingiva of mandibular molars?

first and second premolars
the mental foramen is usually located on the lateral surface of the mandible inferior to the apices of what mandibular teeth?

posterior superior alveolar block
to have complete anesthesia of the maxillary quadrant, what anesthetic block needs to be administered along with an AMSA block?

premolars
what serves as a landmark for the AMSA block?

gow-gates block
what is considered a true mandibular local anesthetic block because it anesthetizes the entire mandibular nerve?

maxillary second molar
what landmark should be noted when administering a gow-gates block?

inferior alveolar block
what block is usually associated with self-inflicted trauma?

mental block
what block has a high risk of positive aspiration?

vazirani-akinosi block
what block usually anesthetizes the mylohyoid nerve?

closed-mouth block
the vazirani-akinosi block is what type of block?

neck of mandibular condyle
the target area for gow-gates block is?

inferior alveolar block
the lingual nerve is anesthetized by what nerve block?

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