Anatomy: Chapter 4 Tissues

The role of brown fat is to warm the body; whereas, the role of white fat is to store nutrients.

Healing of a surgical incision through the body wall will tend to increase the amount of areolar tissue.

The wall of the alveolus (air sac) in the lung is composed of which type of epithelium?
simple squamous epithelium

The proximal tubule of the nephron (kidney tubule) in the kidney is composed of which type of epithelium?
simple cuboidal epithelium

The epithelium of the esophagus is composed of which type of epithelial tissue?
stratified squamous epithelium

Which part of the neuron (a specialized nerve cell) receives signals from other cells and is also the main metabolic region of the neuron?

Which of the three muscle cell types has multiple nuclei?

Which muscle cell type has visible striations but is not under voluntary control?

Without macrophages, wound healing is delayed. Why?
Macrophages phagocytose many foreign materials, as well as cell debris and dead cells. This cleans the wound, allowing granulation tissue to form.

Which of the following statements is NOT characteristic of the areolar connective tissue pictured in the figure?
Areolar connective tissue is avascular.

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium

Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue?
Collagen fibers provides high tensile strength.

Which tissue type is responsible for regulating and controlling body functions?
nervous tissue

Which of the following epithelial tissue locations is NOT correctly matched to its function?
skin: absorption

Which tissue type arises from all three embryonic germ layers?
epithelial tissue

Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.

Pseudostratified epithelium consists of multiple cell layers.

An exocrine gland that has an unbranched duct would be classified as a ________.
multicellular simple gland

Intercalated discs and striations are found in skeletal muscle.

Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers.

The correct order of events in tissue repair, from first to last, is ________.
inflammation, organization, and regeneration

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium ciliated variety ________.
lines most of the respiratory tract

Aging tends to increase bony spread within the body as chondrocytes die.

Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues.

Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue.
Its primary function is nutrient storage.

The first step in tissue repair involves ________.

Smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations.

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.

Which type of gland produces hormones?
endocrine glands

What are the three main components of connective tissue?
ground substance, fibers, and cells

Blood is considered a type of connective tissue.

________ is a water-soluble, complex glycoprotein that is secreted by goblet cells.

What is the most obvious structural feature of areolar connective tissue?
the loose arrangement of its fibers

Which cells are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells?
goblet cells

After open heart surgery, the heart’s pumping efficiency may be reduced because__________.
both adhesions and fibrosis will interfere with the heart’s normal pumping activity and reduce its effectiveness

Injured cartilage might heal more quickly if a treatment were discovered that would __________.
stimulate blood vessels to develop within cartilage

Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is found in bone?
blood vessels

Which type of epithelium lines the interior of the urinary bladder?
transitional epithelium

How is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage?
Fibers are not normally visible.

Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function form a(n) ________.

Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually found in areas where secretion and absorption occur.

Select the correct statement regarding the stem cells of connective tissue.
“Blast” cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.

Chondroblasts ________.
within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix

________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
Pseudostratified columnar

Which of the following is not a step in tissue repair?
Formation of new stem cells

Depending on the functional state of the bladder, transitional epithelium may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium.

________ is the tissue that regulates and controls body functions.
Nervous tissue

Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
Stratified squamous epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.

A major characteristic of fibrocartilage is its unique amount of flexibility and elasticity.

Which tissue type consists of a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity?
epithelial tissue

Which type of membrane is a dry membrane exposed to the air?
cutaneous membrane

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
Simple cuboidal epithelia are found in areas that stretch.

Aunt Jessie woke up one morning with excruciating pain in her chest. She had trouble breathing for several weeks. Following a visit to the doctor, she was told she had pleurisy. What is this condition and what did it affect?
Pleurisy is inflammation of the serous membranes covering the lungs. Inflamed pleural serous membranes create friction, resulting in pain as the lungs move during breathing.

Which of the following describes a holocrine gland?
Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing.

Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands.

Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally until the cell ruptures.

Which of the following is NOT a role of connective tissue?

Heart muscle cells would tend to separate without ________
intercalated discs

Which statement best describes connective tissue?
usually contains a large amount of matrix

Edema occurs when
areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area

Which tissues have little to no functional regenerative capacity?
cardiac muscle and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord

Which of the following would be of most importance to goblet cells and other glandular epithelium?
Golgi bodies

Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue.

Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?
simple columnar

Which tissue repair process results in the formation of scar tissue?

Which of the following is a property of epithelial tissue?
Epithelial tissue is innervated.

Connective tissues ________.
primarily consist of extracellular matrix

Connective tissues that possess a large quantity of collagen fibers often provide the framework for organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes.

A many-layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.
stratified squamous

The basic difference between dense irregular and dense regular connective tissues is in the amount of elastic fibers and adipose cells present.

Choose the correct pairing for a tissue and its embryonic origin.
Epithelium is derived from all three primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands?
Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.

The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.
elastic cartilage

In adult humans, most cancers are carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. These include cancers of the skin, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. Which of the four basic tissue types is involved, and why?
Epithelial tissue: it is exposed to the environment and is constantly dividing, both factors allowing more opportunity for damage and overcoming growth control mechanisms.

Connective tissue matrix is composed of ________.
fibers and ground substance

Why are adipose, blood, and bone all considered to be connective tissues?
They have a common origin, mesenchyme.

Which of the following glands might utilize the secretory mechanism and duct structure shown in A?

The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength, which allows them to absorb shock, is because they possess ________.
collagen fibers

Elastic cartilage tissue is found in the walls of the large arteries that leave the heart.

Cell type not found in areolar connective tissue.

Which is the most atypical connective tissue since it does not connect things or provide structural support?

Choose the answer that shows the correct order for the standard preparation of a histological specimen.
(1) fixation, (2) sectioning, (3) staining

Arteries, veins, and lymphatics keep clots from sticking as long as their ________ is intact and healthy.

An infection may occur in a tissue injury. Why?
The increased availability of nutrients allows microorganisms to replicate. The skin and mucous membranes are body’s first line of defense and are mostly impenetrable to microorganisms, unless broken or damaged by tissue injury.

All connective tissues arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.

Which of the following is true about epithelia?
Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.

What tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels?
osseous tissue

Which of the following is a single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes?
simple squamous

Where is transitional epithelium found?
in areas subjected to stretching

Goblet cells are found within pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

Cartilage has good regenerative capacity, while most epithelial tissues do not.

All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function.

Salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement.

Which of the following increases the surface area of certain epithelial tissues?

Exocrine glands ________.
secrete substances onto body surfaces

Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature.

The simple columnar epithelium that form absorptive cells of the digestive tract have which characteristic?
dense microvilli

Which tissue is correctly paired with its primary cell type?
bone: osteoblast

Epithelial tissues always exhibit apica-basal polarity; meaning that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface.

After a heart attack, fibrosis occurs at the site of cardiac muscle cell death. This reduces the efficiency of the heart’s pumping activity because __________.
fibrous connective tissue is incapable of contracting

The shock-absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of fibrocartilage.

Smooth muscle ________.
is under involuntary control

Tendons and ligaments are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue.

________ are highly phagocytic cells that are a part of the body’s defense system. These cells can be localized (fixed), or they can wander throughout the body.

The blast cell for blood production is the ________.

Select the TRUE statement.
Dense connective tissue is often called fibrous connective tissue

The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.

Functions of connective tissues include binding, support, insulation, and protection.

Mucous cells are ________.
unicellular exocrine glands

Which is true concerning muscle tissue?
highly cellular and well vascularized

Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue.

In connective tissue, the role of collagen fibers is to ________.
provide tensile strength

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