List the four steps a lay responder (you) will take in an emergency
1. Recognize that an emergency exists
2. Decide to take action
3. Activate the EMS system
4. Give care consistent with your knowledge + training until EMS arrives + takes over
List the four primary ways to RECOGNIZE an emergency
1. Unusual sights
2. Unusual sounds
3. Unusual odors
4. Unusual appearance/behaviors
Why might a person not respond to someone who needs help? (List 4 reasons)
-panic or fear of doing something wrong
-being unsure of the person’s condition + what to do
-assuming someone else will take action
-fear of being sued
How can a person prevent disease transmission while providing help? (List 4 reasons)
-avoid contact with bodily fluids
-wash your hands thoroughly after giving care
-use protective CPR creating barriers
What is the reason for the Good Samaritan Laws?
To protect people who voluntarily give care in an emergency situation
After you recognize an emergency, decide to act, and activate EMS but BEFORE you give care you must obtain _______, if the victim refuses your help, you should…?
CONSENT; Call EMS and not try to help further
What are the three Emergency Action Steps?
What is the most important step you can take to help a person who is unconscious or has some other life threatening condition?
Call for emergency medical help
When you are alone, what are the three situations in which you would “Call First”?
-any adult or child about 12 years or older who is unconscious
-a child or infant you witnessed suddenly collapse
-an unconscious child or infant known to have heart problems
When you are alone, what are the two situations in which you would “Care First”?
-an unconscious child (younger than 12) who you did not see collapse
-any drowning victim
List 6 situations where you would call 9-1-1
-unconsciousness/altered level of consciousness
-lasting chest pain, discomfort, or pressure
-persistent abdominal pain or pressure
-severe external breathing
Do you always call 9-1-1 when an individual becomes injured, no matter how minor? Why/why not?
Not always- you must use your judgement to determine how dire the situation is
What are the 3 situations when you would have to move a victim?
-when you are faced with immediate danger (the scene is unsafe)
-when you have to get to another person with a more serious problem
-when it is necessary in order to give proper care (not enough space, need a flat surface for CPR, etc.)
** If a victim is able to talk to you then you know they are breathing and have a pulse (ABC’s). Assess the situation. If there aren’t any other life threatening conditions (severe bleeding, etc.) find out what happened by asking questions. You follow this “interview” process whenever you deal with a conscious person (ask for consent if the individual is an adult or a child/infant with a parent).
Checking a Conscious Person
For the purposes of First Aid, define an adult, child, and infant (a.k.a. how old is each)?
Adult: older than 12 years old
Child: between the ages of 1 and 12
Infant: younger than 1 year old
How should you begin the “interview”?
Identify yourself and get the person’s consent to give care
What are 4 questions you should ask to gain information from a victim?
-Do you feel pain or discomfort anywhere?
-Do you have any allergies?
-Do you have any medical conditions or are you taking an medications?
What is one of the most dangerous threats to a seriously ill or injured person?
What is shock? List 4 signals that might indicate a person is going into shock AND list 4 steps to treat/prevent shock.
-restlessness or irritability
-altered level of consciousness
-nausea or vomiting
-pale, ashen, or graying, cool, moist skin
-have the person lie down flat
-reassure the person
-help the person maintain normal body temperature
-do not give the person anything to eat or drink in case their condition is severe
Under normal conditions, how long can a person be without oxygen before POSSIBLE brain damage occurs?
Define respiratory distress and respiratory arrest:
Distress: a condition in which breathing becomes difficult
Arrest: a condition when breathing has stopped
List 4 signals that indicate a person is in respiratory distress:
-trouble breathing or no breathing
-slow or rapid breathing
-unusually deep or shallow breathing
-gasping for breath
What are the two skills used to clear on obstructed airway in conscious choking:
Adult/child: let him/her keep coughing
Infant: if they cannot cry or breathe, give 5 back blows, then 5 chest thrusts
In what situations do you stop giving care to a conscious choking victim? (LIST 3)
-EMS takes over
-scene becomes unsafe
-you are too exhausted to continue
Describe the best way to check for responsiveness:
Adult/Child: tap him/her on the shoulder + ask if he/she is ok, speaking loudly
Infant: tap the infant’s shoulder or flick the bottom of their foot and shout
When we come upon an unconscious victim we are able to see if our victim has one of these systems by checking their ____ ____ ____’s (three letters). What do these letters stand for?
ABC’s- *A*irway, *B*reathing, *C*irculation
In reference to our ABC’s, the letter “B” means:
What do we *look* for?
What do we *listen* for?
What do we *feel* for?
-look for the person’s chest clearly rising and falling
-listen for escaping air
-feel for the escaping air on the side of your face
An emergency involving an unconscious child is more likely a _________ emergency.
An emergency involving an unconscious adult is more likely a _______ emergency.
What is the purpose of recovery position? What body systems must be working in the victim when you place him/her in the recovery position? (Otherwise you would still be treating the victim!!!!)
To keep the airway open and clear; the respiratory system must be working
WHEN can behaviors/habits that may possibly harm the heart and blood vessels begin?
at any age
Name four controllable risk factors that increase the risk of heart disease.
-high cholesterol/blood pressure
List 5 signals/symptoms of a heart attack.
*These vary from person to person and between men + women, but common signals include:*
-chest pain/pressure/discomfort that lasts longer than 3-5 minutes and cannot be relieved
-pain may spread to arm(s), upper stomach, back, etc.
-pale, graying skin
-dizziness or nausea
-may feel unusually tired or anxious
What common pain reliever can be given to a conscious person suffering a heart attack to reduce the effects of the attack while waiting for EMS to arrive? WHY?
Aspirin because it is a blood thinner + can relieve the blockage in their arteries
What is the name of the four step process that increases a victim’s chance of survival if followed? List the four steps.
*The Cardiac Chain of Survival*
2. Early CPR
3. Activation of EMS system
4. Early advanced life support
5. Integrated post cardiac arrest care
1. Recognition of cardiac arrest + activation of EMS
2. Early CPR
3. Early defibrillation
4. Early advanced life support
5. Integrated post cardiac arrest care
CPR stands for:
Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation
The word “Cardio” is in reference to what organ?
The word “Pulmonary” is in reference to what organ?
With these two organs in mind, what are you taking over when you perform CPR (a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths) on a victim?
Heartbeat + Breathing
WHY is the correct hand positioning important when performing CPR? Give 2 reasons.
-to perform good compressions
-to prevent the breaking of a rib
Infant Hand Position: Two or three fingers in the center of the chest (on lower half of sternum, just below nipple line)
Infant Compression Depth: About 1 ½ inches until the chest clearly rises (about 1 second per breath)
Infant Compression Rate: 30 chest compressions in about 18 seconds (at least 100 compressions per minute)
Infant # of Breaths: 2 rescue breaths per cycle
Child Hand Position: Two hands in center of chest (on lower half of sternum)
Child Compression Depth: About 2 inches until the chest clearly rises (about 1 second per breath)
Child Compression Rate: 30 chest compressions in about 18 seconds (at least 100 compressions per minute)
Child # of Breaths: 2 rescue breaths per cycle
Adult Hand Position: Two hands in center of chest (on lower half of sternum)
Adult Compression Depth: About 2 inches until the chest clearly rises (at least 1 second per breath)
Adult Compression Rate: 30 chest compressions in about 18 seconds (at least 100 compressions per minute)
Adult # of Breaths: 2 rescue breaths per cycle
What is the difference between CPR and care for an UNCONSCIOUS CHOKING victim?
(hint: there is one major modification)
For unconscious choking victims, you must sweep the mouth for objects
What does AED stand for?
Automated External Defibrillator
By how much is the chance of survival decreased when defibrillation is delayed?
10% every minute
What is the first step in AED use?
Turn on the AED
There are several AED precautions and guidelines. Briefly list and describe the 6 you feel are the most important?
-Do not use alcohol to wipe the person’s chest clean: alcohol is flammable
-Use pediatric pads when appropriate, but do not use them on an adult, child older than 8 years, or a person that weighs >55 lbs
-Do not touch the person while the AED is analyzing bc it will disrupt analysis
-Make sure no one is touching the person during/before defibrillation occurs
-Do not use an AED in water or a moving vehicle
-Do not use a mobile phone or radio within 6 feet of the radio bc it will disrupt analysis
The AED is of combination of _____________________ and ___________________?
*Defibrillation* and *CPR*
Why should you verbally (SPEAK OUT LOUD) repeat the AED?
To make sure no one is touching the person or resuscitation equipment
What does soft tissue consist of?
The layers of skin and the fat and muscle beneath the skin’s outer layer
What are the two types of soft tissue wounds:
Closed wounds and open wounds
What is a closed wound?
internal bleeding or damage to the soft tissue beneath the skin
A minor closed wound is called a:
A major closed wound is called a:
What is the care for a minor closed wound:
apply cold, like an ice pack, and have the person be comfortable + rest
What is the care for a major closed wound:
Name the four types of OPEN WOUNDS and give 3 signals of each:
-rough rubbing against skin
-scrape or road rash
-not much bleeding
-cut in the skin
-blunt force splits skin
-heavy or possibly no bleeding
-soft tissue partially or completely torn away
-not usually bleeding
-body part torn away
-pointed object pierces the skin
-not usually bleeding
-can cause infection
What is the care for a MINOR open wound?
clean the area with soap and water
What is the difference in care for a MAJOR open wound?
do not wash it, it is more important to control the bleeding
Why do you check for feeling, color and warmth after bandaging a wound?
to make sure the bandage isn’t too tight
What is the purpose of a bandage?
to hold dressings in place, apply pressure to control bleeding, protect a wound from dirt + infection, and to provide support to an injured limb or body part
What is the purpose of a dressing?
to absorb blood and other fluids from the wound + prevent infection
What is a combination of a bandage and dressing?
Describe the care given for a nosebleed (at least 3 steps)
1. Have the person pinch their nostrils together
2. Have them sit with their head tilted slightly forward for about 10 minutes
3. If no improvement occurs, apply an ice pack to the bridge of the nose (with a cloth between the skin and the ice) or put pressure on the upper lip just beneath the nose
Describe the care given for a tooth that has been knocked out:
-save the tooth by placing it in milk or cool water
-rinse out the mouth with cold tap water
-place a rolled sterile dressing into the space left by the missing tooth
What is a tourniquet and when is the only time it should be used?
A tourniquet is a tight band placed around an arm or leg to constrict blood vessels in order to stop blood flow to a wound. It should only be used as a last resort if care or response from EMS is delayed, direct pressure will not stop the bleeding, or direct pressure cannot be applied.
What are the three types of burns? List from least to most severe:
What is the basic 4 step care for ALL types of burns?
1. Flush the burn with cool water but *never* ice or ice water
2. Treat for shock
3. Make sure the person is removed from the source of the burn
4. Call 911 for critical burns
What ADDITIONAL care would you give for each of the four categories of burns?
-cover the burn loosely with sterile dressing after cooling with cold water
-keep the person warm to maintain their body temperature + prevent hypothermia
-make sure the person is no longer in contact with the power source
-turn off the power at its source
-be prepared to perform CPR or use an AED
-look for entry + exit wounds
-if the burn was caused by dry chemicals, brush off the chemicals with gloves or a towel
-if an eye is burned, flush it with cool water
-have the person remove contaminated clothing if possible
-treat as you would for a thermal burn
-keep the person away from the source of the burn
What body structures do musculoskeletal injuries affect?
Bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints
Describe a fracture.
A complete break, chip, or crack in a bone. Can be open (broken skin) or closed (unbroken skin)
Describe a dislocation.
The movement of a bone at a joint away from its normal position
Describe a sprain.
The tearing of ligaments at a joint. Severe sprains may also involve fractures or dislocations.
Describe a strain.
A stretching and tearing of muscles or tendons
What does R.I.C.E. stand for?
R=*Rest*: limit use of the injured body part
I=*Immobilize*: stabilize the injured body part with an elastic bandage or splint to limit motion
C=*Cold*: Apply a cold pack (with a towelette as a buffer)
E=*Elevate*: Elevate the injured body part
Besides calling 9-1-1, what is the most important thing to remember when you suspect a head, neck, or back injury?
Make sure they do not move their head. You should approach them from the front, ask questions verbally so they do not move their neck, and support the head and neck in the position found.
What signs could signal a concussion?
Problems with thinking + remembering, physical problems, emotional problems, and behavioral problems can all be signs of a concussion. More specifically:
-bleeding from the ears or nose
-problems with balance
-nausea or vomiting
-difficulty answering questions
-change in behavior
List the 3 basic types of heat related illnesses in order of their severity and list 4 signals for each.
1. Heat Cramps
-often painful muscle spasms in the legs or abdomen
2. Heat Exhaustion
-cool, moist, pale, ashen, or flushed skin
-weakness + exhaustion
3. Heat Stroke
-extremely high body temperature
-dry or moist red skin
-changes in consciousness
-rapid, weak pulse
-rapid, shallow breathing
Describe the care that is given to EACH type of heat related illness.
1. Heat Cramps:
-move person to cool place to rest
-give electrolyte/carb-containing fluids or water to keep them hydrated
-lightly stretch + gently massage affected muscle
2. Heat Exhaustion:
-move person to cool environment
-loosen/remove clothing + apply cool, wet cloths
-give fluids in small increments
-call 911 if condition worsens
3. Heat Stroke: Call 911 immediately
-rapidly cool person by immersing or dousing them in cold water *or*
-sponge person in ice water-doused towels *or*
-cover them with bags of ice
List and briefly describe the two types of cold related illnesses? (10 words or less)
Frost Bite: freezing of body parts exposed to cold
Hypothermia: body’s ability to keep warm fails
Describe the care that is given to EACH type of cold related illness.
-call 911 if it is serious
-minor: rewarm affected area with skin-to-skin contact, *do not rub*
-more serious: gently soak in warm water, loosely bandage area
-call 911 immediately
-remove wet clothing, dry the person, + put on dry clothing
-move the person to a warm area + warm them by wrapping them in blankets to retain body heat
-give warm liquids
-severe hypothermia: check for consciousness, perform CPR and use AED if necessary
When a person becomes suddenly ill, he/she:
Usually looks + feels sick
List 10 signals/symptoms of a possible sudden illness:
-changes in level of consciousness
-signals of a possible heart attack or stroke
-loss of vision or blurred vision
-signals of shock
-persistent abdominal pain or pressure
-nausea or vomiting
What is the care for a seizure victim?
-make the environment safe to prevent injury to the person
-care for the person as you would an unconscious person: make sure the airway is open, roll them on their side if necessary
-be comforting and reassuring
-allow the person to rest
-*do not*: try to stop the seizure, restrain the person, or put anything in their mouth
What does F.A.S.T. stand for AND in relation to what sudden illness?
*F*ace: weakness, numbness, or drooping on one side of the face
*A*rms: weakness or numbness in one arm
*S*peech: slurred speech or difficulty speaking
*T*ime: try to determine when the signals began, if any are present call 911 immediately
What is the care for a diabetic emergency?
Give sugar: glucose tablets/paste, fruit juice, milk, non-diet soft drinks or sugar dissolved in water
Who would you call if you suspect a poisoning?
The National Poison Control Center hotline: 1-800-222-1222
List two tick-borne illnesses:
-Rocky Mountain spotted fever
What are signals of an insect sting?
-presence of a stinger
-signals of an allergic reaction
What is the first aid for an insect sting?
-remove any visible stinger
-wash the sight with soap + water
-cover the site + keep it clean
-apply a cold pack to the area to reduce pain + swelling
-call 911 if the person has trouble breathing or other signs of anaphylaxis
List 4 ways to help prevent bites from those pesky little critters:
-wear long sleeved shirts + long pants in wooded areas
-avoid underbrush + tall grass
-inspect yourself carefully for insects or ticks after being outdoors
-wear sturdy hiking boots
What is the basic first aid for an animal bite?
-control any serious bleeding
-do not clean serious wounds, but wash minor wounds with soap and water
-apply antibiotic ointment + cover a minor wound with dressing
-watch for signals of infection