American Heart Association First Aid

First Aid
The immediate care you give someone with an illness or injury before someone with more advanced training
arrives and takes over

Rescuer Duties
deciding to provide first aid – recognition
asking to provide first aid
supplying the first aid kit

if the person refuses your help
phone your emergency response number or 911 and stay with him until someone with more advanced
training arrives and takes over

If the person is confused or cannot answer
assume that he wants you to help

Victim and rescuer safety
assessing the scene
washing hands
universal precautions
exposure to blood
taking off gloves

assess the scene mean consider
danger, help, who, where

wash hands how long
at least 20 seconds

PPE
personal protection equipment

examples of PPE
gloves, eye protection and mask to protect when you give breaths

veins
ooze

arteries
squirt

bloodborne diseases are caused
by germs

3 examples of blood born diseases
HIV (immunodeficiency virus )
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C

American Heart Association adult CHAIN OF SURVIVAL important actions
recognize emergency and phone for help
CPR emphasis on compressions
rapid AED use
effective advanced care
coordinated care afterward

When to phone for help
someone is seriously ill or injured
you are not sure what to do in an emergency

examples of someone seriously ill or injured
does not respond to voice or touch
has chest discomfort
has signs of stroke
has a problem breathing
has a severe injury or burn
has a seizure
suddenly can’t move a part of the body
has received an electric shock
has been exposed to poison
* If someone tries to commit suicide or is assaulted, phone the emergency response number ( 911)
regardless of the person’s condition

AED
automated external defibrillator

Find the problem
check the scene to be sure it is safe
tap the person , are you ok
check if the person is breathing
look for any obvious signs of injury , such as bleeding, broken bones, burns, or bites
look for medical information jewelry

someone is having breathing problems if
breathing very fast or very slow
having trouble with every breath
has noisy breathing
can only make sounds or speak no more than a few words at a time in between breaths, although person tries to say more

Choking
when food or another object gets stuck in the airway in the throat. The object stops air from getting to the lungs

The choking sign
holding the neck with one or both hands

Heimlich maneuver
an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea

Where to position your hands for the Heimlich maneuver
Make a fist with 1 hand , put the thumb side of your fist slightly above the belly button and well below the
breastbone, grasp the fist with your other hand and give quick upward thrusts into his abdomen, give thrusts until the object is forced out and he can breathe, cough, or talk or until he stops responding

Signs of a heart attack
chest discomfort – squeezing, pressure, fullness, or pain, discomfort in other areas of the upper body- pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or abdomen, shortness of breath, other signs may
cold sweat, nausea, or light headedness.

signs of a heart attack in women, the elderly and diabetics
ache in the chest, heartburn, or indigestion. Uncomfortable feeling in back, jaw, neck or shoulder.
They may also complain of shortness of breath or have nausea or vomiting.

fainting
is a short period when a person stops responding for less than a minute and then seems fine. Not enough
blood going to the brain. seconds before fainting may feel dizzy

fainting often occurs when
stands without moving for a long time, esp hot weather
has a heart condition
suddenly stands after squatting or bending down
receives bad news

low blood sugar can occur when
not eaten or is vomiting
not eaten enough food for the level of activity
injected too much insulin

signs of low blood sugar
change in behavior – confusion or irritability
sleepiness or not responding
hunger, thirst, or weakness
sweating, pale skin color
seizure

stroke occurs
when blood stops flowing to a part of the brain. signs are usually very sudden

signs of a stroke
sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm or leg- esp on one side of the body
sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or trouble understanding
sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
sudden severe headache with no known cause

seizure
abnormal electrical activity in the brain

seizures can be caused by
a condition called epilepsy
head injury
low blood sugar
heat-related injury
poisons
( after a seizure not unusual for person to be confused or sleepy)

Shock
shock develops when there is not enough blood flowing to the cells of the body.

shock is most often present when
loses a lot of blood that you may or may not be able to see
has a severe heart attack
has a severe allergic reaction

signs of shock
feel weak, faint, or dizzy
feel nauseous or thirsty
have pale or grayish skin
act restless, agitated, or confused
be cold , clammy to the touch

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