Unit 20 Causes and Spread of Infection 1. 1 See worksheet. 1.
2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – sore throat, tuberculosis, bubonic plague, whooping cough, anthrax. Viruses – flu, AIDS, HIV, hepatitis b, common cold, Fungi – thrush, ringworm, anthrax, madurella mycetoma, athlete’s foot. Parasites – worms, malaria, sleeping sickness, river blindness, elephantiasis, katamaya fever, body / head lice, amoebiasis. 1. 3 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation.
Infections happen when the body is invaded with micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses and parasites that are not normally inside the body Colonisation is the development of a bacterial infection on/in an individual, the individual becomes a carrier of the infection but may have no signs or symptoms of illness, although they do have the potential to infect others. 1. 4 Explain what is meant by systemic infection and localised infection. Systemic infections affect the whole body – Flu / HIV, while localised infections are limited to one area of the body – ear / eye infection. . 5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection. Poor personal hygiene, incorrect disposal of rubbish / waste / chemicals, not washing hands, not wearing PPE, not storing or cooking foods properly, not cleaning your surroundings, not covering your nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing, sharing towels, tooth/hair brushes, not following policies or reporting outbreaks / episodes of disease, direct contact with bodily fluids and waste. 2. 1 Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms. The main requirements for the growth of micro-organisms are time and moisture, some need oxygen and warmth, (although micro-organisms can live without air and live in temperatures from 0 to 40 + degrees). 2. 2 Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body.
Mouth, ears, nose, cuts, wounds, eyes, urinary tract, anus, mixing of bodily fluids, needle users, placenta route, unhygienic conditions in piercing / tattoo / body modification environments, blood transfusions, having an operation / plastic surgery / facial injections. 2. 3 Identify common sources of infection. People, animals, food, insects, objects, unclean home / public environments. 2. 4 Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.
Skin to skin contact, food / air / water borne, direct contact with bodily waste / vomit and fluids, mixing of bodily fluids, saliva, bitten by insect or animal. 2. 5 Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur. Unclean living conditions, the elderly, toddlers, teenagers, poverty, those with illnesses or cancers, unprotected sexual intercourse, weakened immune systems, poor personal hygiene, those who have direct contact with an infected person, poor food preparation / storage practices, contaminated objects.