Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Introduction

Brain is one regarding the most important body organs. Its failure or perhaps malfunctioning usually results into fatal cases that are usually complicated and costly to be able to treat. Similar to other disease of the human body, brain diseases manifest into different ways, displaying varying signs and symptoms together with diverse risk levels. Medical practitioners describe the loss of human brain function as dementia, a condition due to certain conditions, which impact the brain. In discovering diseases, which guide to this condition, Alzheimer’ s disease is amongst them.


Abbreviated as AD, the illness starts mildly before deterioration with time. Its finest effects are it affects the overall memory ability of a patient, pondering and ultimately behavior. Alzheimer’ s disease results in to a wide range of diagnosis features, including memory impairment, poor judgment ability, personality problems, inappropriate decision-making and language problems (Turkington & Mitchell, 2009).


According in order to documented research, Alzheimer’ t disease is the primary result in of dementiaffecting near to half a , 000, 000 people in the uk and several million in the usa. Importantly, dementia is a general phrase which refers to an amount of symptoms, which may consist of poor reasoning, problematic interacting ability, mood changes and impaired memory among others.


These symptoms mainly occur following mind damage that could be brought on by Alzheimer’ s condition or other related attacks. The disease is believed to have been first described by Alois Alzheimer, a German neurologist as a physical disease which usually predominantly affects the brain (Cohen, 1999).


As a practicing medical doctor, Alois Alzheimer noticed unusual symptoms manifested by certainly one of his dead patients in 1906. Alzheimer’ s disease is well known to affect the normal framework of brain, which may result into the death regarding some important cells. It is important to double emphasize that typically the disease is progressive in addition to may lead to continuous harm and death of a lot more brain cells. As a result, patients with Alzheimer’ s disease worsen as time passes.


Like inside other known cases, experts have devoted their period discovering the treatment regarding the disease with outcomes indicating that there is no exact cure regarding the disease yet (Brill, 2005). This research paper, therefore, gives an research of the treatment of the disease. Several sections covering the chemistry in the disease have been incorporated in brief with a thorough and elaborate synthesis associated with treatment procedures that have been found working and recommended in dealing together with the disease.


Symptoms


Significant signs and symptoms regarding the disease revolve about the memory of sufferers as their brain becomes damaged with time. Despite the fact that memory problems could also be attributed to additional infections, which affect the brain, medical practitioners agree that most cases are Alzheimer-related.


The common condition which impacts memory is amnestic mild cognitive impairment. People along with MCI are likely to experience more memory problems as compared to their particular age mates who are normal (Callone, 2010). Typically the main difference with all those with Alzheimer’ s condition is that MCI individuals experience mild symptoms since compared to severe signs observed among Alzheimer’ t disease patients.


However is not guaranteed, some scientists believe that old people with MCI will likely develop Alzheimer’ s disease. Apart through memory impairment, Alzheimer’ h disease patients demonstrate low aspects of cognition, which can be characterized by impaired reasoning and judgment, poor perspective and word. As pointed out above, Alzheimer’ s illness is progressive and displays varying symptoms according to the development stage of the condition (Soukup, 1996).


During mild stage regarding Alzheimer’ s disease, individuals experience simple but harmful problems like getting lost inside a familiar neighborhood, lack of ability to complete simple tasks also with plenty of time and improper handling pounds that may possibly result into defaulting in order to pay bills. Some patients start repeating questions any time asked and develop character changes. Under normal conditions, Alzheimer’ s disease will be diagnosed during this phase of development (National Company on Aging, 2003).


In cases exactly where Alzheimer’ s disease is usually not controlled during the first stage, it generally advances to the modest stage of development, which usually involves damage of several brain parts that are usually responsible for language moderation, conscious thoughts and thought among others.


At this stage, most patients encounter severe loss of storage leading to if you are a00 associated with confusion that makes them impossible to recognize their own environment, family members in addition to close friends (NHS, 2010). Ultimately, patients become unable to perform simple duties which may involve a series of steps such as dressing up, become not able to cope with new scenarios and pay attention to anything new.


The last period of Alzheimer’ s disease development is recognized as dangerous considering that tangles, and plaques may have widely spread in order to most parts of the particular brain leading to severe downsizing of several brain cells. At this stage, individuals are described as household because of their inability to connect and handle themselves (Nordqvist, 2011).


During last amounts of this stage, sufferers spent most of their own time in bed helplessly as their body methods shut down slowly. Remarkably, these three stages are usually irreversible although intervention in the course of the first stage may be helpful in minimizing the severity of the particular symptoms manifested.


Causes of Alzheimer’ s illness


According in order to Mayo Clinic Staff, Alzheimer’ s disease has simply no single cause identified by simply medical experts throughout typically the world. It really is believed in order to be caused by intertwined factors, which include ecological, lifestyle and genetic makeup, which progressively affect the particular normal body functioning (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).


Research further indicates that less than several percent of cases, which occur are gene-related. Significantly, some people show the particular symptoms of infection after the disease has developed to advanced levels of which the severity of the symptoms cannot be controlled.


Although presently there are varying findings, Alzheimer’ s disease people that are above the associated with sixty years are usually with a higher risk regarding developing the Alzheimer’ h disease. In the usa, more than five million people reside with Alzheimer’ s condition today. The following sectors describe some of typically the factors known to trigger Alzheimer’ s disease.


Age


Among all the elements, age is the finest predisposing factor of Alzheimer’ s disease. According to technological research done by Alzheimer Society, Dementia is common in individuals who are above the age of sixty-five years with statistical research showing that one out there of fourteen people who have attained this era is at risk of developing the particular disease(Alzheimer’ s Society, 2011).


Genetic Gift of money


Although analysis is still underway, right now there have been cases where certain families show uniformity and high risk of infection than others. Nevertheless, genetic factors rarely affect older people in spite of these people having a higher danger of being infected by Alzheimer’ s disease.


Those people that have close loved ones members using the disease have a slightly higher opportunity of developing as in contrast to families, which shortage traces from the disease (Alzheimer’ s Society, 2011). With regard to environmental aspects, no substantive research offers been documented even although some experts have related Alzheimer’ s disease along with high exposure to aluminum metal. Nevertheless, these claims are actually discounted on many occasions, leaving room regarding further investigations.


Additionally, many people who suffer from Down’s syndrome are really susceptible due to typically the existing variations in their own chromosomal make-up. The danger is regarded higher among people who are above the age regarding fifty years.


Similarly, exposure to head accidental injuries resulting from accidents plus high pressure exerted in the course of boxing and other related activities, which may trigger injury of brain cells leading to subsequent advancement of the disease. Last but not least, cigarette smokers and people have developed hypertension are in a higher risk of developing the disease. Keeping a holistic healthy life is highly recommended in lowering the risk associated with Alzheimer’ s disease infection (Alzheimer’ s Disease Research, 2011).


Checks and Diagnosis of Alzheimer’ s disease


An important remark is that you will find no particular tests, which were recommended to be confirmatory. Because of this, assessments are usually determined by the doctor’s judgment based on the physical observations and other simple analyze, which may be transported out to give some kind of clarity. Most doctors have the ability to identify patients with dementiand even go-ahead to evaluate whether or not the situation may have been caused by simply Alzheimer’ s disease.


However, accurate diagnosis can simply be established after the death of a new patient through microscopic exam of brain tissues (National Institute of Aging, 2010). Such analysis usually reveals the characteristics of plaques and tangles that may have developed following your illness developed to advanced in addition to severe stages. Moreover, presently there are several tests, which have been developed in buy to establish a basis to differentiate other causes of memory loss coming from Alzheimer’ s disease.


Physical examination


This requires the basic analysis of the neurological health of a patient which among other items focuses on coordination, reflexes, balance, muscle tone, efficiency of sense of touch and sight and train locomotive ability. Laboratory tests are incredibly important in eliminating additional potential causes of seen memory impairment among sufferers like insufficient vitamins plus thyroid disorders (Hill, 2011).


Additionally, emotional tests are imperative in identifying the stability of a patient’s memory. This takes close to ten minutes before the neurologists can ascertain the exact condition of the memory space of his or the woman patient. This test involves simple tasks like sketches, copying some design, composing and memory of some words uttered by the examining specialist.


Neuropsychological testing


Based on results obtained during initial stages associated with testing, doctors may advise a broader assessment physical exercise that would lead to be able to finer diagnostic results. These tests usually take longer hours and is considered assisting in determining whether typically the disease is at their initial stages or that this patient could be struggling from another kind of dementia. They also help in typically the identification of specific adjustments which occur as a new result of different marque of dementia (Nazario, 2011).


The image


Brain imaging will be rarely used in learning the nature of brain malocclusions which could not actually be associated with Alzheimer’ h disease. Included in this are tumors and strokes that have the ability to cause quantifiable intellectual variation in patients. Typical imaging techniques used consist of Computerized tomography (CT), Permanent magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron emission tomography (PET) (Nazario, 2011).


Although these techniques are utilized in testing Alzheimer’ s disease, it is essential to understand that earning use of radiations which have been found to be able to have adverse effects upon humans. As an extreme caution, doctors aren’t allowed in order to expose human brain to extreme radiations to avoid long-term damage of cells and emergence of other health complications.


Remedy


As mentioned above, Alzheimer’ h disease is the the majority of common type of dementiaffecting lots of people around the world. With close fifteen million people suffering coming from the disease worldwide, there provides been research efforts targeted towards identifying methods regarding preventing the disease or perhaps reversing of progressive signs. However, these efforts have got not bore substantive outcomes (Alzheimer’ s Association, 2010).


Could offers been the case, presently there are drugs recommended regarding Alzheimer patients for decreasing the severity of noticed symptoms and prevention regarding other opportunistic infections, which usually may affect Alzheimer sufferers. The most important thing about management of Alzheimer’ s disease is earlier diagnosis before it develops to unmanageable levels.


If management programs are initiated early adequate, many neurologists argue that will such patients might be able to handle their lives without necessarily depending on caregivers in your own home. Additionally, may live extended due to reduced outcomes of manifested symptoms. Of extreme significance may be the require for doctors to observe specific symptoms and provide relevant drugs. Common symptoms to be observed and obtained care of include but not limited to behaviour problems, aggression, depression in addition to sleeplessness (Kantor, 2010).


Drugs


Despite the fact that no drugs possess been discovered for treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’ s disease, there are individuals that are administered to lessen the severity of signs among patients. In many cases, the effects and total benefit of these medicines may be quite small to go unnoticed by patients and family members. Just before patients and caregivers decide to use recommended drugs, it is important regarding proper consultation to become done to know any time to use the medications (Delrieu et al., 2011).


In this respect, one is supposed to be aware of the part effects plus some of the particular risks associated with that, having in mind that will the expected change within functioning or behavior may be negligible. Patients also have to know the best time to use the medicines, and if there can be situations that might require the patient in order to discontinue drug administration. Up to now, there are two sorts of drugs, which have been accepted for the management associated with Alzheimer’ s disease. They are:


Cholinesterase blockers


Namenda


Cholinesterase inhibitors


This class of drugs consists of four medications, which are Razadyne, Cognex, Aricept and Exelon. Cholinesterase inhibitors are recognized for their ability in order to prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, a chemical found in the human human brain that may be responsible for storage and learning. The medications have also been found to slow down typically the usual progression of Alzheimer’ s disease symptoms regarding a limited duration of moment ranging up to twelve months (Delrieu et al., 2011).


In knowing these drugs, it is essential to know of which Aricept is the only drug which has the approval of Food and Medication Administration for treating Alzheimer’ s disease during the three stages of development discussed within the segments previously mentioned. It is administered by mouth since it exists since tablets, which can become directly swallowed or mixed in the mouth.


Additionally, Cognex will be reported to have recently been the initial Alzheimer’ s drug to become recognized and advised to be used by FDA. Nevertheless, it’s the least used medicine in managing Alzheimer’ s disease as compared to be able to the other members of the category of drugs (Delrieu et al., 2011).


Similarly, Exelon provides been recommended for employ mildly in moderating Alzheimer’ s disease symptoms prior to they become severe and irreversible. Exelon exists will be several forms; as water, skin patch and within capsule form. Lastly, Razadyne, formerly known as Reminyl is recognized and authorized for its ability in addition to effectiveness in Alzheimer’ s disease management (Cummings, 2001).


It is available in three formulations, specifically, liquid, immediate-release tablet in addition to extended-release capsule. Like many other drugs used within take care of diseases, Cholinesterase inhibitors have side effects, which often have to be comprehended when a patient is usually using them.


These include vomiting, sleeplessness, weight loss, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fatigue and feeling sick. Likewise, the use associated with Cognex can result into lean meats damage. It is considered to be able to be the most harmful side effects described by physicians. So as to prevent liver damaging, it really is highly advisable regarding the doctor in charge to carry out liver tests to determine the functioning and likelihood of being affected as a result of Cognex (Cummings, 2001).


Namenda


This drug has been authorized to take care of Alzheimer’ s disease from moderate stage of development to the serious level. Unlike other medications which have been authorized for the treatment of the disease, Namenda has an unique mechanism for Alzheimer’ s disease.


Its protective capacity allows it to reasonable the release and activity of certain brain chemical compounds referred to as glutamate (Growdon, 1992). This is usually quite important since glutamate regulates the learning in addition to memory ability of human beings. It has recently been observed that Alzheimer’ s disease patients usually discharge excess glutamate in their particular brain which consequently influences their cognitive ability.


In administering this drug, the brain might become capable of liberating normal amount of glutamate thus maintaining the ability of affected individuals to maintain their sense of memory and learning. Importantly, Namenda is the only medicine that has proved to job this way and boosts its efficiency when applied with other drugs like Cognex, Aricept, Razadyne or even Exelon. Common side effects related to Namenda include head ache, confusion, tiredness, constipation and dizziness (Kantor, 2010).


Supplements


There are numerous cases, which are usually been documented about people using vitamin E, B12 and B9, although no research has supported their performance in Alzheimer’ s disease treatment. In other places, people believe that ginkgo biloba herb prevents typically the disease whereas scientific study has shown no correlation between the herb and Alzheimer’ s disease. This, therefore, follows that medications used as supplements in Alzheimer’ s disease treatment should be recommended by a specialist since FDA does not approve above counter drugs.


Supportive environment


Patients with Alzheimer’ s disease require supportive plans as part of typically the treatment plan. It is recommended that they be exposed to a safe environment that minimizes accidents due to their inability to be able to support themselves and determine their surrounding correctly.


Simple things like proper arrangement of furniture are usually important in promoting their own safety (Nazario, 2011). Other folks include fixing handrails regarding support during movement, appropriate shoes selection and minimizing the number of mirrors in typically the house since mirror pictures may frighten patients.


Exercise and nourishment


Physical exercise is very recommended for everybody, including Alzheimer’ s disease patients. This helps to sustain healthy joints, muscles plus improve their mood. It also prevents constipation plus augments sound sleep. These types of patients need to become well identified while working out for easy identification simply by the public and provide them assistance once necessary.


Immobile sufferers can adopt stationary bikes as well as other approved machines (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Concerning meals, Alzheimer’ s individuals need a balanced diet to be able to maintain their deteriorating well being. Reminding them to eat and giving them a hands in preparation and helping is healthy and stimulating.


Conclusion


From the over analysis of Alzheimer’ h disease, clearly its avoidance and treatment remain the major challenge for neurologists around the world. Although efforts to find out drugs with regard to preventive purposes are about, it is imperative for that public to understand the manifestation of the illness in order for them to seek medical focus or help people to access specialized treatment before the disease advances.


The use of Medical grade drugs should be prescribed by a doctor to suppress against negative side effects or wrong drug option. Other healthy practices such as excising and proper nourishment are equally essential within preventing the progression of symptoms (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).


References


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Nazario, W. (2011). A Treatment Summary of Alzheimer’ s Illness. WebMD . Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/treatment-overview


NHS. (2010). Alzheimer’ s Disease. NHS . Retrieved coming from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/alzheimers-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx


Nordqvist, C. (2011). What Is Alzheimer’ s Disease? Just what Causes Alzheimer’ s Condition? Medical Information Today . Retrieved through http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159442.php


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