Hypertension (Rakta Vata) or high BP is a disorder distinguished by more than usual force at which the body-fluid or blood levels are being propelled by the heart. The major function of the heart is to propel body-fluid into the arteries and to obtain the body-fluid that arrives back to it, after having accomplished a circuit of the entire body inside fifteen seconds (Lloyd-Jones, 1999). With each trounce of the heart, the body-fluid is propelled out to the diverse body components through the arteries. When there is a disorder of the arteries for example arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries or deposition of fit in their insides), they are incapable to comprise the allowance of body-fluid that is necessity for a usual functioning of its circulation all through the body, with the outcome that the heart is struggled and works overtime to sustain the needed allowance of blood (Kwan, 1995). In that method, it pumps with larger vigor and what is renowned as ‘high’ force of the body-fluid is caused.
What are the determinants and symptoms?
The usual force in a wholesome, mature individual is usually taken to be about 140 to 150 mm of mercury (systolic) and 90 mm (diastolic) (National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2000). Depending upon one-by-one constitutions, any variety from the usual devotes increase to symptoms like an annoyance, a feeling of buzzing in the ears, force in the frontal district of the head, palpitations, and a general feeling of unease. Hypertension may be categorized as being either absolutely crucial or functional. It may be initiated in the last cited case is an outcome of malfunctioning of the kidneys, giving increase to a high urea content in the blood. Stress or disquiet may be the other determinants of purposeful hypertension (Oldendick, Coker, Wieland, Raymond, Schell, & Stoskopf, 2000).
According to Ayurveda, although, hypertension is an outcome of vitiation of vayu. Excessive use of alcoholic beverage and other Intoxicants; salt; need of workout, premier to relentless inactivity of the heart sinew under situation of stress-are all causes for hypertension (Oldendick, Coker, Wieland, Raymond, Schell, & Stoskopf, 2000).
The cardinal symptoms of hypertension are: incompetence to doze well, palpitations, giddiness, flaw, and impairment of digestion. If the disorder becomes chronic due to carelessness or need of correct medication, the capillaries providing body-fluid to the retina may become disordered and there may be impairment of vision. If the body-fluid provide to the mind falls short as a difficulty of high body-fluid force, the persevering may load up casualty to a stroke. There may be cerebral hemorrhage, producing in paralysis or even death (Kaiser, 1999).
• Garlic Raw garlic has heating scheme effect. It is thus utilized with buttermilk. In the early phases, it is suggested to use 1 mg of garlic, thrice a day. Gradually, the content can be expanded to 3 gm, furthermore three times in a day (Baker & Priest, 2000).
• In the next helpful pattern garlic, is deep-fried in ghee with honey. This way, one can eliminate farthest stink and furthermore it is cholesterol free. (Garlic should be bypassed raw and should be blended with herbs to overwhelm any harmful effect) (Baker & Priest, 2000).
• This research paper mentions some academic Indian supportive remedies for this infection which are presumed to be taken firmly under health supervision.
Ayurvedic Remedies and Hypertension
The use of ayurvedic remedies by clients with identified medical conditions such as mild to moderate hypertension is of greater concern to the medical community than their use by those who simply desire health maintenance or treatment of mild illnesses such as the common cold. Although many herbs and ayurvedic combinations have been used in China and Europe for centuries, little is known in the United States about their quality, efficacy, and synergistic effects with food, other supplements, alcohol, and prescription pharmaceuticals (Zapatero, 1999). In 1997, 60 million U.S. consumers reported using herbs, and it is estimated that 15 million of these consumers combined their use with prescription drugs (Vetter, Glauzer, & Vetter, 1980).
Although there is a substantial body of historical anecdotal information about the positive effects of certain herbs, practically nothing is known about drug-herb interactions. This section will focus on a brief description of four herbs commonly marketed for hypertension, Rauwolfia serpentina (snakeroot), Stephania tetrandra, Panax notoginseng, and Crataegus hawthorn extract; their purported effectiveness; known or suspected client contraindications and adverse effects; and nursing care considerations (Oldendick, Coker, Wieland, Raymond, Schell, & Stoskopf, 2000). The root of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina or snakeroot) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine, the primary basis of the Indian health care system, to treat hypertension for centuries.
Snakeroot is a natural source of reserpine and is classified as a Rauwolfia alkaloid (Baker & Priest, 2000). As a powdered whole root of 200–300 mg it is equivalent to 0.5 mg of resperine. Reserpine was used widely in the United States from the 1940s through the 1960s, falling into disfavor when other antihypertensive with fewer side effects became available (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993).
Reserpine blocks the uptake of such amines as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in the storage vesicles of the central and peripheral adrenergic neurons, thereby leaving these catecholamines to be destroyed by monamine oxidase (Kwan, 1995). This central nervous system action accounts for reserpine’s antihypertensive effects, which are a lowering of blood pressure, a decrease in cardiac output, and a reduction in peripheral resistance, heart rate, and renin secretion. Rauwolfia alkaloids such as serpentina are contraindicated for clients with a history of depression, suicidal ideation, peptic ulcer, and ulcerative colitis (Lloyd-Jones, 1999).
Adverse effects are nasal congestion, increased gastric secretions, sedation, problems with concentration, and the inability to perform complex tasks. This herb may cause depression and should be discontinued when depression is first assessed (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993). Reserpine’s effects are long acting since neuronal recovery, which may take days or weeks, requires the development of new storage vesicles to accommodate amine production. Nursing action in regard to this herb involves direct questioning of the client about its use; whether the client is still taking the herb and, if not, the date of termination. If clients are using R. serpentina, nurses should initiate depression and suicidal ideation assessments (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996).
Teaching clients about use of the herb would involve information about the previously mentioned adverse effects and contraindications. Stephania tetrandra (S. tetrandra or tetrandrine) is often used for the treatment of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This herb is a calcium antagonist and parallels the actions of such known calcium antagonists as verapamil. In laboratory studies on rats, tetrandrine lowered the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and depressed cardiac contractions. Tetrandrine has been reported to induce liver necrosis in dogs with two months of oral administration three times weekly (Zapatero, 1999).
Lower doses caused reversible liver swelling or no negative effects on the liver at all. Because of these findings, further studies need to determine safe and effective levels of use in humans. Additionally, S. tetrandra has demonstrated an immunosuppressive effect because of its action on the synthesis of human monocytes and leukocytes. This adverse action needs further study but would theoretically eliminate the herb’s use by clients whose immune systems are already compromised or those with immune-related diseases (National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2000).
Nursing action in regard to this herb would include assessment of use, dosage, and frequency combined with physical assessment for evidence of liver toxicity. Client education should incorporate the information about potential liver toxicity and the immunosuppressive effects along with the need for immediate medical evaluation if the herb has been used (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993).
Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng or ginseng) is used in TCM as an alterative (cleansing and stimulating body waste removal) and is the ingredient in many Chinese medicinal prescriptions for circulatory disorders. Ginseng saponins, extracted from the root, have been reported to dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure in laboratory rats, cats, and dogs (Zapatero, 1999). This antihypertensive action is thought to be a result of the herb’s inhibiting norepinephrine and its action as a calcium antagonist. However, the efficacy of P. notoginseng in the treatment of hypertension is uncertain, as it has been shown to cause both vascular relaxation and constriction depending upon total ginseng saponins in the ayurvedic supplement and the receptor sites (Kwan, 1995).
Nursing action for P. notoginseng involves assessing use and dosage and monitoring blood pressure. Since ginseng is marketed for its overall health benefits, it is important to determine client usage in conjunction with conventional antihypertensive drugs. Because of ginseng’s ability to constrict blood vessels, it seems appropriate to advise hypertensive clients against its use alone or in combination with conventional antihypertensive drugs (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993).
Crataegus hawthorn (C. hawthorn) has been very popular with consumers in the past decade for its effects on the cardiovascular system. Hawthorn leaves, flowers, and fruits contain such biologically active substances as flavonoids and catechins, which appear to be related to hawthorn’s antioxidant effects (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996). This herb is known to reduce cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids’ levels in low-density lipoprotein, thereby inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis. Other studies have shown that C. hawthorn reduces resting heart rate and mean diastolic blood pressure during exercise and increases perfusion of the myocardium through revascularization (Vetter, Glauzer, & Vetter, 1980). An interesting in vitro study examined the effects of hawthorn on cardiac papillary and vascular smooth muscle in coronary arteries obtained from heart transplant clients who suffered cardiomyopathy or extensive atherosclerosis (Baker & Priest, 2000).
Hawthorn extract created a decrease in wall tension and increased dilation of these vessels. The only known adverse effects of hawthorn are the result of over dosage with a concomitant hypertensive effect. Contraindications, to date, indicate that this herb potentiates the activity of digitalis and, therefore, should not be used in conjunction with digitalis (Oldendick, Coker, Wieland, Raymond, Schell, & Stoskopf, 2000). Nursing action involves assessing dosage and frequency and monitoring blood pressure. Since effective dosage levels are not known, the potential exists for the client to under treat or over treat his/her hypertension; monitoring of the herb’s effectiveness for an individual client seems indicated (Kwan, 1995).
According to Ayurveda, high body-fluid force engages all the doshas, the heart, and the body-fluid vessels. We can glimpse indications and symptoms of derangement of vata dosha mostly that of ‘Vyana vayu’ in high body-fluid pressure. The remedy is to correct the balance of vata dosha. Pitta visitation is furthermore glimpsed often and should be treated. In ayurveda, High body-fluid force is furthermore renowned as rakta cappa vriddhi. Ayurvedic remedy for high BP aspires at balancing these doshas (Kwan, 1995).
Sometime an imbalance in kapha too can lead to high pressure. People with Pitta and Vata predominate constitution and Pitta and Vata imbalance, are more prone to hypertension than any other. Unprocessed wrath, annoyance, irritability, disquiets and worry directs to mal-adaptation of the endocrine scheme, which then directs to situation like hypertension (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996). Treatment is founded on conveying these imbalances back to normal. In the remedy of hypertension; nutrition, workout, respiring activities (Pranayama), yoga, meditation, behavioral modification along with diverse herbs and minerals are prescribed.
Ayurvedic Diet for High BP
• Ayurveda suggests apt alterations in the diet of an individual with high BP in order that the errant doshas can be rebalanced. This encompasses residing away from irritants and imbibing those components that assist the body in accomplishing a state of equilibrium (Baker & Priest, 2000).
• Following a vegetarian diet is the best way to decrease high BP. The diet should encompass vegetables for example parsley, acrid gourd, drumsticks and garlic. Fruits perfect for a high body-fluid force decreasing diet are grapes, bananas, watermelons, and guavas (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993).
• Dairy goods for example cabin dairy cheese, dairy disperse (clarified) and milk is good supplements to an ayurvedic diet that is beneficial for the remedy of high BP (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996).
• It is best to decrease the intake of caffeine which is dynamically discovered in pieces for example coffee. Caffeine farther irritates the scheme and it furthermore determinants the body-fluid force to fire up (Vetter, Glauzer, & Vetter, 1980).
• The intake of saline in the diet has to be decreased along with a decrease in the allowance of cereals and pulses that one consumes (Kaiser, 1999).
• Red beef and for demonstration are an unconditional no when one is seeking to balance the doshas and decrease the incidence of high body-fluid force attacks (Kaiser, 1999).
• Avoid beef, for demonstration and salt
• Reduce protein intake (Kaiser, 1999)
Follow the next vegetarian diet as proposed by Baker & Priest (2000):
• Vegetables: Garlic, lemon, parsley,
• Fruits: Indian Gooseberry, Grape fruit, watermelon,
• Dairy: Milk, Cottage cheese, clarified butter.
• Coffee, which comprises caffeine, enhances the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline and both are significant in expanding body-fluid force levels (Kaiser, 1999).
• Limit sodium in the diet (Baker & Priest, 2000).
• Cigarette smokers are inclined to have high body-fluid pressure. Nicotine rises the relaxing heart rate and rises the issue of the adrenaline (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996)
• Basil and Neem departs are best for decreasing the hypertension. You just intake them early in the forenoon on empty stomach.
• Papaya is another best crop for reducing the BP
Ayurvedic Medicines for High BP
• Gokshura (tribulus terrestris) is a diuretic and an ACE inhibitor. It has been utilized for healing diverse wellbeing situation and is renowned to decrease symptoms associated to high BP (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996).
• Rauwolfia serpentine which is popularly renowned as sarpagnadha is another herb that is extensively utilized to heal high body-fluid pressure (Vetter, Glauzer, & Vetter, 1980).
• Gulkand is renowned to have a soothing and calming result on the body and mind. It furthermore uplifts the feeling and assists in holding stress at bay. It is popularly renowned as increased petal jam.
• Arjuna considerably let down body-fluid force in human subjects. You can take arjuna as extracts, capsules or tinctures as a heart tonic and to heal hypertension, heart malfunction, high cholesterol and angina. The bark comprises flavonoids, glycosides and tannins, and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hypertensive and cardiotonic actions.
• Garlic is a marvel pharmaceutical for heart. Clinical tests have shown that new garlic and garlic supplements may smaller cholesterol grades, avert body-fluid clots, and decimate plaque (National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 2000).
• Ayurvedic Lifestyle for High BP
• Regular workout assists in holding the body and brain wholesome and it furthermore decreases tension. All these add to the wellness of the body and furthermore hold infection at bay (Eisenberg, Kessler, Foster, Norlock, Calkins, & T, 1993).
• Yoga and meditation are prescribed by ayurveda to balance the brain and decrease stress.
• Simple respiring activities when feeling worried or tensed can assist many in holding body-fluid force in check (Oldendick, Coker, Wieland, Raymond, Schell, & Stoskopf, 2000).
• Chanting the mantra ‘OM’ or hearing to a notes of it in the early forenoon and night is furthermore beneficial (Siegel, Casper, Schnalke, & Hetzer, 1996)
• Yogasana : Asanas like shavasan, padmasan, vajrasan Yogamudra, Dhanurasan, Paschimottasan, Konasan, Matayasan and Matsyendrasan should be skilful regularly. All the asanas in which the body is held inverted are prohibited (Vetter, Glauzer, & Vetter, 1980).
Meditating and performing respiring activities frequently are absolutely crucial to setting up a new relaxation answer in location of the hypertensive reflex to stress.