Teen-related Abortion Deaths in Legal and Banned Countries Essay Sample
Abortion is the discontinuation of pregnancy before giving birth causing death to the fetus which is also synonymously defined as the extraction of embryo from the uterus or may also be defined as the cessation of a pregnancy preventing birth of a child (Encarta ency…). Miscarriage is most commonly known as the only non-induced type of abortion. Abortion can occur by accident or naturally due to undeveloped embryo because of disorder or injury, inhibiting mothers from having the pregnancy to full term or can be by intent through surgical method because a pregnancy is undesired or maybe due to extreme mental and physical problem of the embryo which may put danger to the mother’s health. Induced abortion has introduced the most extreme ethical issue in which simple, safer and modern procedures are being introduced and which also resulted to legal battles and debates just like in the US.
In medicine there are six types of induced abortions the first one is called the “morning after pill” which when used will prohibits the embryo in connecting itself to the uterus so the fetus would die, the second one is the “vacuum suction technique” by which the fetus is removed and suctioned up out of the uterus, the third method is called the “saline infusion method” by which a saline solution known as protogleden is injected to the abdomen directly to the amniotic fluid cavity in the uterus, making the fetus removed in 12 hours after injection, the fourth one is known as the “partial birth abortion” in which the fetus or the embryo is aborted before the full birth, the fifth one is the “live birth abortion” in which labour is induced letting the baby to die, and the sixth one is known as “therapeutic abortion” in which the pregnancy is stopped due of maternal medical complications through the use of a method called “dilatation curettage” by which the uterine cavity is scraped withdrawing the embryo from the womb (Questioning 2003).
The occurrence of induced abortion may vary, it is estimated that about 46 million abortions are done world wide annually and a fraction of 26 million abortions are known to be seen in countries where abortion is legal compared to about 20 million from countries in which abortion is banned. Among the countries with low occurrences of induced abortion are Belgium and Netherlands while Russia and Vietnam have high occurrences of induced abortion. An estimated ratio of 26 aborted fetuses in 100 pregnancies is the assumed statistical ratio around the world.
About 13 percent of pregnancy-related deaths have been attributed to complications of unsafe abortion with a probable number of 67000 deaths yearly and it is also reported that the danger of death following complications of unsafe abortion in developing countries is magnified a several hundred times compared to abortions done professionally in safe conditions. Complications due to unsafe abortions may result to extreme health hazard like infertility. Because no contraceptive is 100% effective, there will continue to be unwanted pregnancies in which women may seek to end by induced abortion (Safe, 2003). It is also reported that in almost all countries the law permits abortion to save the woman’s life and in most countries abortion is also allowed to maintain the mental and physical health of the woman.
The cause of maternal deaths are multiple, women may die due to complications during labour and delivery which may go unrecognized or inadequately managed, also, women may die due to diseases such as malaria which are severed by pregnancy, or complications due to unawareness of being pregnant such as in ectopic pregnancy which may result to death. Because of drastic increased in utilization of contraceptive in the past decades, a ppredicted 40-50 million abortions have been seen yearly, half of them are not safe. An estimated of 13% of all maternal mortalities are because of complication of not safe abortion. Additionally, 70,000 females who die annually, many suffer long-term health repercussions such as infertility. In places where family planning is majorly available, pregnancies result because failure of contraceptives, difficulties with utilization or due to rape. Pregnancy may give danger to the life of a woman or to her health. In acknowledgement of such situations, almost all nations in the world have approved laws which permit cessation of pregnancy under specific terms. In some circumstances, abortion is only legal in saving the life of a woman; for some, abortion is permitted upon appeal of the woman. In addition, unsafe abortion is associated with considerable morbidity.
For instance, studies indicate that at least one in five women who have an unsafe abortion suffer a reproductive tract infection as a result. Some of these are serious infections, leading to infertility (World Health Organization 1998). Where access to abortion services is legally restricted, or where the law provides for abortion on many grounds but services are not fully available or are of poor quality, women who have money are nonetheless often able to buy medically competent services from the private sector. But many other women who have unwanted pregnancies are at particular risk of unsafe abortion. They include women who are poor, live in isolated areas, are in vulnerable circumstances (such as refugees or internally displaced women) or are adolescents, especially those who are not married. These women have less access to reproductive health information and services, they are often highly vulnerable to sexual coercion and violence, they may delay seeking abortion, and they are thus more likely to have to rely on unsafe abortion methods and unskilled providers (Safe 2003).
The great majority of the deaths from unsafe abortion occur in developing countries where abortion is severely restricted by law. In developing regions (excluding China), 330 deaths occur per 100,000 abortions, a mortality rate that is hundreds of times higher than the rate in developed countries. The degree is highest with a predicted 680 deaths in 100,000 actions in Africa. Most Governments have ratified legally-binding international treaties and conventions that protect human rights, including the right to the highest attainable standard of health, the right to non-discrimination, the right to life, liberty and security of the person, the right to be free from inhuman and degrading treatment, and the right to education and information.
In regard of these human rights, the governments allowed the ICPD+5 review procedure that in events where abortion is not unlawful, health systems must educate health providers and must have other measures to assure that the abortion is safe. Additional measures should be taken to safeguard women’s health.”A clear understanding of laws on abortion as well as related policy considerations is required to ensure that all women eligible under the law have access to safe services. Further, the majority of the world’s Governments at the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women agreed they should “…consider reviewing laws containing punitive measures against women who have undergone illegal abortions” (Safe 2003).
In countries where abortion is broadly legal, services are usually accessible, and the procedure is performed early in pregnancy by skilled practitioners; in these circumstances, abortion-related deaths are rare (Sharing responsibility…). Where abortion is generally against the law, well-off women in cities are frequently able to obtain safe abortions, but many of their poor and rural counterparts try to end their own pregnancies or turn to unskilled practitioners. Of the 600,000 women who die each year from pregnancy-related causes, an estimated one in eight die of complications from abortion. Abortion-related deaths are hundreds of times more common in Latin America and Africa than in developed countries. Furthermore, experts believe that about one-third of women undergoing unsafe abortions experience serious complications, yet fewer than half of these women receive hospital treatment. Levels of maternal death and illness due to abortion have fallen dramatically in countries that have liberalized their abortion laws.
Each year, millions of women living in countries that place severe restrictions on abortion ignore the law and attempt to end their pregnancies by unauthorized means. Many unauthorized abortions are unsafe. The World Health Organization predicted that of the assumed 600,000 deaths due to pregnancy resulting annually around the world, 78000 are due to complications from not safe abortion, and in Latin America around 21 percent of mortalities are predicted to be in relation to unsafe abortion.
Legalization reduces the adverse consequences of unsafe abortion. By reducing or eliminating the need for unsafe procedures; the legalization of abortion increases women’s chances of surviving the procedure and improves their subsequent health. It reduces the number of women likely to suffer complications from unsafe abortion, leads to a drop in abortion-related mortality and thereby substantially lowers overall maternal mortality rates. For example, in Romania, abortion was legally available from 1957 to 1966, then was severely restricted as part of an overall pro-natalist policy.31 As illegal and unsafe abortions replaced legal procedures, abortion-related mortality rose steeply, reaching a record-high level of 142 deaths for every 100,000 live births in 1989; just one year later, when most restrictions were removed, the rate fell to about one third its peak level. And in South Africa, six months after legal abortion became available in February 1997; the number of incomplete abortions at one large hospital in Port Elizabeth had declined from an average of 18 every week to approximately four.
“Abortion.” n.d. Encarta Encyclopedia, 30 November 2007 < http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761553899_2/Abortion.html >.
“Questioning Abortion.” 14 December 2003. A Christian Perspective On Justice For The Fetus. 30 November 2007 <http://members.aol.com/necemer/AbortionFinalPaper.pdf >.
“Safe Abortion:Technical and Policy Guidelines in Health Systems.” 2003. World Health Organization, 30 November 2007 < http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/safe_abortion/safe_abortion.pdf>.
“Sharing Responsibility Woman Society Abortion & Worldwide.” n.d. The Allan Guttmacher Institute, 30 November 2007 < http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/sharing.pdf>.