Research in dental caries

Download PDF

Data collection was carried out after receiving an approval letter from institutional head. As data collection was carried out in selected hospitals so before involving the participants a written consent was taken from concerned person of hospitals. All participants were informed regarding the risks and benefits of the study. Participants were also informed that whole data will be confidential. Individual participant was examined clinically under the supervision of highly qualified surgeon so that the chances of error could be minimized. Some verbal questions were also asked from each patient. Both dental arches were checked clinically to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Whole clinical checkup was carried out in adequate light and in the presence of well qualified assistant. Disposable gloves, apron, mask, and examination instruments were also used. All detailed information’s were filled in pre designed questionnaire.The data is statistically analyzed through SPSS version 22(48) in the form of bar graphs, pie charts, etc.

Study was conducted on 251 subjects during which each subject was examined clinically and also their medical history was recorded. Out of total subjects 61(24.3%) were males and 190(75.5%) were females.All 521 subjects have urban and rural distribution, include subjects of all ages and during study subjects ranges between 9-84 ages were recorded. Out of 251 (89) individuals belongs to urban while 162 belongs to rural areas. As each individual have a different area distribution therefore oral hygiene status also varies among them which is mentioned on the basis of three variables i.e, poor(0), moderate(1) and good(2), and 45% has poor, 46% has shown a moderate and 8% has shown a good oral hygiene, and dental caries prevalence in the total population is 208 (82%) For more insights and seeing through any further associations between one of selected systemic diseases and dental caries, all over subjects were further categorized in to 5 groups.

Thus Group 1 consists of individuals having diabetes, group 2 subjects had Arthritis, Group 3 subjects had a hypertension, Group 4 were having GIT problems and in 5th group were mentioned any systemic problems rather than which may or may not be present in addition to the above mentioned systemic problems.In case of association of dental caries with diabetes, individuals having dental caries and also have diabetes were 71.3%, and individuals having dental caries but no diabetes were 81.7%, also individuals having no caries and diabetes were 90.6% while individuals having no caries but suffered from diabetes were 9.3%.Whereas subjects having no arthritis and no dental caries were 83.7% and subjects having no caries but suffering from arthritis were 16.2% similarly patients suffering from caries and also arthritis were 19.2% and patients having dental caries but no arthritis were 80.7%In case of dental caries with hypertension subjects having dental caries and also were hypertensive have shown 37.5% prevalence but patient having dental cariest not suffering from hypertension were 62.5%.Similarly patients having no dental caries but were Prevalent to hypertension were 27.9% while 72% were not.Patient suffering from caries and also have a gastric problem were 20.6% and 79.3% have no such gastric problem. While patient having no caries but have shown gastric issue is 11.6% but 88.3% have not shown such problemsProper oral health is a prime factor for normal body functioning because oral cavity acts as a window in to the health of our body. Also different systemic problems that can affect our whole body also results from different oral diseases(3).Dental caries is one of the oral diseases that may occur due to several reasons like poor oral hygiene, high intake of sugar, insufficient use of fluorides or may be due to certain environmental factors. Additionally, dental caries may also occurs due to medications for different systemic problems that cause xerostomia and as a result caries occurs(13).

Dental caries if not treated on time may results in tooth loss, irreversible pulpities and also in severe cases my results in to anxiety, in such case patient refuses to take any treatment and as a result certain systemic diseases could also occurs like diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, gastrointestinal problems etc(26). Current study was conducted on 251 individuals of both genders from rural and urban areas. Out of total population it was observed that parameters giving highest percentages in relation to dental caries are: Arthritis = 66.9%, Hypertension =31%, gastrointestinal problems =17%, diabetes =14.3. In contrast people has dental caries but no arthritis and diabetes gives highest percentages that are 68.5% and patients having no GIT problem but have caries are 65% and in last people having no hypertension but have dental caries are 51.7%.Analysis of the questionnaire data did not reveal major differences in the reports of this study population as concerns whether a patient suffered dental caries first or or either associated systemic desise, also ages were not recorded through proper legal methods by checking their id cards some told their original ages and others only assumed through their physical appearances. Through dental caries and area distribution correlation values were highly significant and also variations among the sample was observed regarding Dental Caries in relation to area distribution(A.D) but proper overall hygiene status could not be dipcted clearly through questionnaire because while collecting data it was observed that most of the high class individuals and also poor status have shwn very bad hygiene. However to overcome the duplications or errors data have been manually checked many times. The pattern of oral hygiene was checked thoroughly and also data collection about the systemic disease was error proof. Oral hygiene condition of most of the patients was very poor especially of female because of unawareness, illiteracy and unaffordable prices of oral products and poor dietary habits. While comparing the caries score of diabetic patients with similar study conducted in Jammu Kashmir using a sample size of 100 has shown high prevalence of dental caries in diabetic patients, compared to non diabetics where a mean value of 14.8+_0.59 was observed.(49). Likewise another study conducted in 2015 in Karachi was also showing a high prevalence of dental caries in diabetic patients where mean was value equal to 4.9 (50).

In arthritis it is also observed that one of the symptoms of the disese includes demineralization of bones. Another study entitled as “Relation of dental caries to arthritis conducted in Italy in 2006 on a sample size of 540, it was stated that Greater bone mineralization at a younger age (age =12 years) corresponds to a lowest probability (0.34) of caries. Dental caries may or not clear have contribution in dental caries and.