Preventive Measures Towards Crime Against Women Essay Sample
Violence against women is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. Similar to a hate crime, this type of violence targets a specific group with the victim’s gender as a primary motive. The United Nations General Assembly defines “violence against women” as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” The 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women noted that this violence could be perpetrated by assailants of either gender, family members and even the “State” itself. Worldwide governments and organizations actively work to combat violence against women through a variety of programs. A UN resolution designated 25 November as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.
Although Women may be victims of any of the general crimes such as ‘Murder’, ‘Robbery’, ‘Cheating’, etc, only the crimes which are directed specifically against Women are characterised as ‘Crimes Against Women’. Various new legislations have been brought and amendments have been made in existing laws with a view to handle these crimes effectively. These are broadly classified under two categories. (1) The Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
(i) Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
(ii) Kidnapping & Abduction for specified purposes (Sec. 363 -373 IPC) (iii) Homicide for Dowry, Dowry
Deaths or their attempts (Sec. 302/304-B IPC)
(iv) Torture – both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A IPC) (v) Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
(vi) Sexual Harassment (Eve Teasing) (Sec. 509 IPC)
(vii) Importation of girls (upto 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B IPC) (2) The Crimes under the Special & Local Laws (SLL)
Although all laws are not gender specific, the provisions of law affecting women significantly have been reviewed periodically and amendments carried out to keep pace with the emerging requirements.S The gender specific laws for which crime statistics are recorded throughout the country are – (i) Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
(ii) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
(iii) Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 (iv) Sati Prevention Act, 1987
Factors Contributing to Increased Violence against Women:
In recent years the incidents of women violence have increased significantly in South Asia. There are different socio-economic, political, cultural and religious components, which have contributed to the increased vulnerability of women to male violence, are as under:
1. Male Dominated Society:
As a male dominated society men in all sphere of their life dominate the women of Indian subcontinent. In her life cycle a women depends on father, brother, husband and lastly their sons. Besides, they are dominated and oppressed in every sector by the male members. Owing to such dependency, the male members think that they always direct women and all services should be centered to the interest of the male.
2. Socio-Economic Factors:
The disruption in the traditional rural economic pattern brought about by changing socio-economic processes has adverse effects on women. Both the economically and socially are vulnerable in the society. Traditional socio-cultural practices, low rate of education, lack of employment opportunity, and low nutritional and health status etc. are some of the factors responsible for holding low social and economic status, unemployment have increased the stress and tension in male-female relation in poor households and given rise to desertion, divorce and violence.
3. Cultural Ideological Factors:
Irrespective of national affluence or level of development, women are vulnerable to exploitation, oppression and all other types of explicit violence from men in all societies where cultural norms, tradition and legal system sanction women’s subordination to men. In India, an important mechanism of male dominance is the propagation of gender ideology through sanctions of religious texts and their gender-selective interpretation by the community leaders. Moreover, increasing exposure to violence through popular reading, theaters, film and TV shows, satellite culture etc. directly or indirectly encourage men to commit offences like rape.
4. Devaluation of Moral Character:
Socio-economical conditions like poverty, unemployment etc. and political unrest tend to force young people to be involved in drug addiction, hijacking, illegitimate sex and other anti-social activities.Thus dislocated form moral courage they like to cheer up more by occurring rape violence as thrill and adventure.
5. Poverty Pervasiveness:
Most people of the country are often victimized of due to object poverty. People in large number are live in rural areas. Majority of people are living bellow the poverty line. They live from hand to mouth. Owing to their poverty condition the rural people something tends to incest female members to workout side the home even in urban areas. In that case, miscreants allure them of job and take the opportunity of their helplessness and commit rape.
6. Other Influential Factors:
Besides these, other influential components are responsible for the rape occurrence in the country, lack of education and awareness in case of women, gender disparity, practice of power, land dispute, illicit love affair, denial of love and marriage, opposing second marriage, expansion of political supremacy in the specific area and others, are directly or indirectly associated with criminal activities including women violence. From birth to death, there are different crimes against women
Impact on society
The World Health Organization reports that violence against women puts an undue burden on health care services with women who have suffered violence being more likely to need health services and at higher cost, compared to women who have not suffered violence Several studies have shown a link between poor treatment of women and international violence. These studies show that one of the best predictors of inter- and intranational violence is the maltreatment of women in the society
Crime like “Rape” is far more serious than murder as Murder is “encroachment on right to live” while Rape is “encroachment in right to live with dignity”
· Rape or sexual offence could be categorize into 3 ways
a) Rape / Sexual offense against adult woman / young girl (Age more than 12 years);
Punishment in this case should be at least 10 years with maximum sentence could be capital punishment.
b) Rape / sexual offense against minor (Age less than 12 years)
As victim in this case in not only incapable of providing any resistance but also unable to understand the nature of crime being innocent; the minimum punishment should be “Life imprisonment” to maximum of capital punishment.
c) Gangrape / sexual offense committed by group of people Any sexual crime performed by “group of people” deserves capital punishment only if proven guilty. As they are not at all fit to live as human beings or social animals and could result in severe risk for entire humanity in future as well. In all cases, entire legal process should be finish within 90 days from the day police captures the criminals
· If proven guilty, financial punishment should also be given and recovered money should be handed over to victim or family
· Only police officers with good track record and not having any corruption allegations should handle cases related to crime against women
· Use of all possible technological equipments / gadgets must be made mandatory forinvestigation team to use and must be made available. We certainly don’t need large team size to tackle these issues. Team of 11 people per district is more than sufficient considering overall crime statistics
· Any new complaint filed at any police station at any place in any state in the country should be reported to central database / control room within 24 hours. This would certainly improve monitoring as well as compliance
· Apart from actual criminals, people helping them to indulge into the crime must be given minimum sentence of 7 years + financial compensation
· Accountability of Government and authorities
If crime is performed at public places then respective local authorities should also be made party in the case as they are responsible for providing adequate safety measures for general public visiting those places. Concerned officers must be punished strictly with punishment ranging from termination from service, fine to jail term. Same law should apply to private organizations such as school, hospitals, theatres etc.
Appropriate measures to be taken for swift and salutary punishment to the persons found guilty of violence against women and children, improve the quality of investigations. victim must be provided quick help, support and justice in very less time. Punishments should be such that accused realizes his mistakes and this should be double to the losses given to the victim and in any scenario it should be greater than the losses of victim. For example we may use castration punishment to make them realized their mistakes. All type of losses should be considered like life loss, physical, psychological, social and financial. Fast track courts to impart justice to the victims.
Delays to be minimised in investigations of crime against women. Setting up of ‘Crime against Women Cells’ in districts
Advised to undertake gender sensitization of the police personnel Introduction special women courts and initiate steps for security of women working in night shifts at call centers As per Seventh Schedule, ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects under the Constitution, and as such the primary responsibility of prevention, detection, registration, investigation and prosecution of crimes, including crimes against women lies with the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. Corporate and Media Houses are advised for taking certain steps for the safety and security of the women employees like ensuring that they do not travel alone in the cab and are dropped right at their door steps and accompanied by Security Guards. Local PCR outside schools and colleges should be compulsorily set up. Sufficient sex education should be given to the children, adults as an academic and through counseling where ever possible. This may includes sexual organs, their functionalities, what is pleasure, reason of pleasure, risk and precautions and many more etc.
Establishment of education commission at the national level is required to impart moral education and guidelines and improve the character of youngsters. Women should be trained, educated at least girls students to understand the value of quality, health. They should do more attention over health, body power, should be aware of rules, their rights, helpline numbers, police helps, “do and don’t” guidelines and other emergency precautions. Women organizations and authorities should be empowered to monitor mass media contents and safeguard the rights of women, she noted, and added that apart from protecting women’s rights, authorities should take up measures to efface evil thoughts against women from male. The Censor Board of India should run through the scissors on the scenes showing crime against women or women as the object of lust. Indian filmmakers should start thinking about the impact of films showing rape scenes or violence against women. No reel violence against women The Censor Board of Film Certification (CBFC) has reportedly formulated a new set of rules according to which no violence against women can be shown in films – not even a slap between a quarelling couple. The censorial axe will also fall heavily on songs and dances which tend to titillate audiences.
Filter the Internet : Stringent Cyber Laws are required for filtering the content that involves morphed pictures, Websites which do not show appropriate information should be either banned or filtered. National Commission for Women
The National Commission for Women was set up as statutory body in January 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 ( Act No. 20 of 1990 of Govt.of India ) to : * review the Constitutional and Legal safeguards for women ; * recommend remedial legislative measures ;
* facilitate redressal of grievances and
* advise the Government on all policy matters affecting women. In keeping with its mandate, the Commission initiated various steps to improve the status of women and worked for their economic empowerment during the year under report. The Commission completed its visits to all the States/UTs except Lakshdweep and prepared Gender Profiles to assess the status of women and their empowerment. It received a large number of complaints and acted suo-moto in several cases to provide speedy justice. It took up the issue of child marriage, sponsored legal awareness programmes, Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and reviewed laws such as Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, PNDT Act 1994, Indian Penal Code 1860 and the National Commission for Women Act, 1990 to make them more stringent and effective. It organized workshops/consultations, constituted expert committees on economic empowerment of women, conducted workshops/seminars for gender awareness and took up publicity campaign against female foeticide, violence against women, etc. in order to generate awareness in the society against these social evils. A BRIEF HISTORY
The Committee on the Status of Women in India ( CSWI ) recommended nearly two decades ago, the setting up of a National Commission for women to fulfill the surveillance functions to facilitate redressal of grievances and to accelerate the socio-economic development of women. * Successive Committees / Commissions / Plans including the National Perspective Plan for Women (1988-2000) recommended the constitution of an apex body for women. * During 1990, the central government held consultations with NGOs, social workers and experts, regarding the structure, functions, powers etc.of the Commission proposed to be set up. * In May 1990, the Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha.
* In July 1990, the HRD Ministry organized a National Level Conference to elicit suggestions regarding the Bill. In August 1990 the government moved several amendments and introduced new provisions to vest the commission with the power of a civil court. * The Bill was passed and received accent of the President on 30th August 1990. * The First Commission was constituted on 31st January 1992 with Mrs. Jayanti Patnaik as the Chairperson. The Second Commission was constituted on July 1995 with Dr. (Mrs.) Mohini Giri as the Chairperson. The Third Commission was constituted on January 1999 with Mrs. Vibha Parthasarathy as the Chairperson. The Fourth Commission was constituted on January 2002 and the government had nominated Dr. Poornima Advani as the Chairperson. The Fifth Commission has been constituted on February 2005 and the government has nominated Dr. Girija Vyas as the Chairperson.