Health Care Spending Paper essay

Introduction

The United States of America is a country that has experienced tremendous achievements in the establishment of a model health care system. The current system is indeed functional within constraints of the impending economic dilemma experienced by many world economies. Despite these problems the giant economy’s analysts strive to establish spending rates, which are manageable in the current situation. This is amid growing population concerns that could significantly impact spending variables (Shi and Singh, 2009). In as much as there are measures established towards streamlining the national expenditure budget on health care there is need to establish better systems aimed at promoting sustainable economic achievements.

Current Level of National Healthcare Expenditures

The current national healthcare expenditure levels simulate a drift towards the emancipation of critical health attention systems. The mode regarding service provision in america associated with America is mainly operate though the already founded public and private wellness care entities. Yet , the greater part of health care organizations are privately owned plus this includes a particular impact on the manner in which the system fundamentally operates (Shi and Singh, 2009). The particular support of health care programs is mainly through Medicare, Medicaid, Veterans Well being Administration, Children’ s Wellness Insurance Program, and private insurance coverage companies, which provide key support for the essential health care system. The current expenditure in the United State’ s medical care stands in a big figure regarding 16. 3% from the country’ s Gross Domestic Product (Herman and Alison, 2009). This figure is unfortunately ranked among the maximum going by the present world rates.

This specific trend may progressively surge as population variable raise against a backdrop of fluctuating market value associated with the United States Money. The Actuary office found in Medicare and Medical planning project that this spending level is bound to increase to about 20% inside by the year 2019 (Herman and Alison, 2009). An explanation of this number indicates that physician solutions account for over even just the teens, pharmaceuticals account for 10%, hospital care accounts regarding 32% of the total expenditure (Herman and Alison, 2009). The spending amounts have been increasing progressively as the years keep on progressing. In the yr 2009 for example, the spending level began to be $2. 51 trillion bucks, which translates to $8, 047 per person plus 17. 33% of the particular Gross Domestic Product going by the current estimates of the total PEOPLE human population (Herman plus Alison, 2009).

Is usually Spending Too Much or perhaps Not?

These investing levels are relatively great going by the present estimates of the planet economic and spending general trends. These consistently high statistics are due to the adjustments going on in typically the medical industry with regard to current legislation provision inside health care, technology alter and increased need regarding medical personnel in the particular newly established centers. Financial experts postulate that the particular spending trends exhibited in health care are fundamentally high to the stage that other economy sectors are feeling the tension (Shi and Singh, 2009). The reason being health care will be internationally rearded as a basic human right hence changing some of their trends has proven in order to be an uphill task. These factors were furthermore fundamentally established through a crucial review of the approaching congress budget recently authorized by benefit office.

Other variables leading to be able to this kind of an association include an raise of the expenditure ranges in health care insurance coverage, drug prescriptions, and scientific enhancements (Lemco, 1999). Found in addition the role enjoyed by the factor regarding income variables is furthermore a major contributor. A new recent study conducted upon member countries from the Corporation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that the US is a fellow member demonstrates it spends fairly high compared to other member states. However, following conducting sufficient statistical analysis it was established that the figure is method below the standard median for OECD after which often analysts attributed this reality to high spending designs on the average US citizen.

Where we as a nation, ought to add or where we should reduce

There is dire need to carry out a cost benefit analysis on the state of affairs concerning United State’s impending high health care costs. The responsibility of health care is spread across many stakeholders all who aim at guaranteeing accessibility to these basic services. Thorough stakeholder involvement would serve to identify some of gaping holes leading to the daily increasing costs (Shi and Singh, 2009). Stakeholders responsible for paying health care services need to stage focused group discussions in order to identify critical areas of health care that need more attention. This would ultimately involve households, businesses, and Government departments. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality launched a Medical Expenditure survey in order to establish areas where citizens tend to spend more, the age groups concerned and the modes of payment. It was established that a good percentage of United States citizens spend significantly on children health care services and among the vulnerable groups include age groups 0 – 18, 45 – 54, 65 – 74, and 85 and over (Shi and Singh, 2008). Among these groups, household contribution came more from the age group 19 – 64 which represents the working adults.

This signifies that there is need for the Government to establish elaborate insurance plans, which offer relative packages with due consideration of citizen status at relative points as opposed to the utilization of fixed plans. There is also need for a shift in focus towards the expenditure in preventive healthcare, as this would ultimately benefit the population in a great way (Shi and Singh, 2009). This should essentially implemented in a progressive fashion through the sensitization of the population on the need to lead healthier lifestyles in order to cut household health care costs. There is also a need for future national healthcare expenditure plans to include the involvement of projected economic analyses which can be subjected to periodic changes to incorporate the constantly changing variables.

How the health care needs of the general public are paid

Health care needs for the general public are paid for by various organs established through certain institutional framewworks.  Some of the organs responsible for paying healthcare bills include health insurance companies most of which are privately owned. The Employees Benefit Research Institute indicates that health insurance plans purchased through employer enabled plans account for 59.34%; plans purchased through individual arrangement account for over 8.94%; and Government supported plans area accounting for 27.83% (Herman and Alison, 2009). There is a strict allotment criterion, which is based on the provision of eligibility plans for the existing employee database. The  Medicare plan is generally meant for the older resident citizens who are over 65 years of age while Medicaid targets vulnerable populations with specific focus on those who are financial disadvantaged; these account for 3.13% for Medicare and 13% for Medicaid of the total national health insurance expenditures according to current statistics (Herman and Alison, 2009).

There are government plans, which cater for the insured lot of the population who are mostly immigrants and some able persons financially. However, data from the US census bureau of statistics show that this figure, which is about 16.12% of total insured health care cost, goes unaccounted for since these are in the form of uncompensated plans (Lemco, 1999). In a  recent study carried out by economic analysts it was established that high health care costs were partly attributed to the influence from inflated bills as seen in private establishments. These are responsible for the current 15% out of pocket personal initiatives to cover for extra unaccounted for costs, which is a growing among mainstream healthcare practitioners.

Forecast of Future Economic Needs of the health care system

The trend in the healthcare system postulates an increase in the annual expenditures for both the government and private health providers. For instance, the national healthcare expenditure per capita is bound to rise to a high of 17.3% according to the annual percentage change rates. The nursing home care expenditures are also bound to rise to an projected increase in the number of citizens belonging to the older population. This figure is projected at reach well above $144.1 billion US dollars, which has been occasioned by a slower price growth of health related commodities (Shi and Singh, 2008). This will impact on health provision by Medicare and Medicaid programs since majority of these persons fall under their jurisdiction.

There will also be an increase in expenditure budgets of majority of physician and clinical service providers. These needs are important in enhancing the general health care of the American citizen. They are also in pursuit of the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals which envision the development of health care programs towards sustainability while focusing on future population fundamentals (Shi and Singh, 2008). These needs can be achieved through the development of efficient funding mechanisms, which pursue a bottom up approach as opposed to the current top down approach. This fundamentally reduces the governments burden on its citizens for catering for their healthcare. Another approach that can be used is the pursuit of unilateral health plans, which incorporate citizenship goals and elaborates on the decentralization of insurance health programs.

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Health Concepts and Behavior Change essay

The definition of health has been an elusive matter for sociologists as various definitions have emerged from different health professionals. Whereas other scholars have defined it as a negative approach to health or the lack of illnesses in the human body, others portend that health is the absence of mental, physical, social, or spiritual well-being in an individual. The latter definition has been accepted by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) formal definition. With the varying definitions of health, understanding or describing its concepts depend on an individual take. Having reviewed many health articles, I find the holistic, positive, and negative health concepts to be popular with majority of health experts.

The negative concept keeps that health in a good individual is the lack of pain, distress, in addition to disease symptoms. Those who consider in the negative concept have the view that will it is not unique to have good well being and thus, they do not take seriously actually fine. This complacency the actual supporters of this concept never to take remedial measures to stay healthy. This is mainly witnessed we have no minor health conditions like frequent cold, tiredness, or depressive disorder. Secondly, positive concept keeps that I is going to take ongoing actions in order in order to well-being and health. Proponents of the positive concept pose of which I should blame personally when I develop illness symptoms but take credit rating when my actions help me lead a healthy existence. Finally, the holistic principle of health views of which being healthy imply a situation when I do not possess any physical challenges, or even illnesses but having emotional discomfort.

It is practically difficult to make a choice on the particular best concept to utilize in my understanding of wellness as the circumstances we face in life carry out vary. The concept associated with health has evolved over the years because in the older days, the negative idea was mainly appreciated givn that people led a more natural life that is free from polluted environment. Nevertheless, using the many diseases of the modern era, that would be critical to develop a positive concept due to the fact preventive medicine now describes the future of medicine.

We are an ardent preacher of the positive idea because of personal beliefs and social factors. Individually, I feel that exercise is a significant part of the particular diet that is needed to make the physique function properly. WHO statement estimates that lack of exercise account for one. 9 million deaths each annum, (Selvan, Wilkinson & Chamberlain, 2004). Consequently, the role of women inside the corporate scene is reducing their conventional role of house makers. Within this cacophony, all members of the family have a fraction of the time to prepare home foods and instead opt for fast food. As Selvan et al. (2004) note, the Western nations will be the the majority of affected by the dietary change because of the particular changing social demography.

Part 2: My Successful Behavior Change

I would have been a cigarette smoker were it not for my behavior change. Two of my best friends were cigarette smokers and due to peer pressure, I was almost on the verge of engaging in the practice. Luckily, I had an opportunity to meet a stroke patient was state of health was further complicated due to his smoking habit. The complication of cigarette smoking among stroke patients is buttressed by Aldoori (1998) that,”Cigarette smoking is a definite independent risk factor for stroke, particularly ischemic stroke.” This is because smoking raises fibrinogen levels packed cell volume. As a positive concept health proponent, I decided to take precaution and desist from ever thinking of holding a cigarette in my hand.

Even though my behavior change towards smoking would have been easy because I was never became a smoker, it is ccritical for a health care provider to do their best in developing a comprehensive intervention for stroke patients. As Visser-Meily, Post, Gorter & Berdenis (2006) write, “Intervention should be focused on the family’s problems and needs, learning to set goals, problem-solving and using coping strategies, (p. 1560).

In line with the positive concept of health, nursing interventions should stretch beyond the confines of care centers and focus on preventive care. Sims (2011) posits that achieving preventive care medicine calls for the collaborative competence of all professionals in educating the society. Hence, in order to promote behavior change in the society, an all-inclusive preventive strategy is essential (Barr, Hammick, Koppel & Reeves 1999).

The collaboration among different professionals will ensure the patient recovers promptly. Collaboration between a nurse and a social worker is becoming acceptable in all facets of health care practice. This is because of the need to practice health practices to provide state-of-the-art psychosocial-medical care, which requires professionals to be interdependent. Social workers also advise patients, their family members and on how to handle the various stages of nursing care. For the different professionals to work together, the communication channel must be responsive to react to any state of emergency in the rehabilitation of the patient.

Moreover, to curb the social ill of over-reliance on fast food and poor exercise behaviors, the most preferred strategies is the promotion of work-site wellness programs at places of work. Work-site wellness and health promotion programs would allow the participation of workers in positive health concepts for healthier lifestyles. This will be vital in preventing the onset of a disease or worsening of a medical condition.

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Health Information Changes essay

The benefits of health information changes include; first, it allows for efficient treatment of the patients. There is faster turnaround time for results. Patients are also given medication quickly hence reducing chances of dying. Secondly, it is easier for consultations because physicians are able to access and view results from different location provided the computer can access her. Thirdly, the number of duplicate tests is reduced (Amatayakul & Lazarus, 2005).

Health Information System essay

Health Information System provides a way for health systems to assimilate information from diverse sources. This enables the health system to utilize information gathered for formulating policies that will enhance the management of the health system. In essence, Health Information System denotes a process of achieving this either via the electronic, like use of computers or paper based, such as clinical guiding principles (Blumenthal, 2006). Because of the varied fronts from which the management of a health system derives its information, the application of Health Information System can be challenging. This is majorly because of the fragmentation of information as well as gathering of deficient information within the system.

Subsequent to the advent of computer technology, most health facilities have adopted this new means of communication and embraced it in their services. Most health facilities in the USA are now using computers to facilitate communication within the system as well as acquire information that can help in formulating feasible policies. Historically, the dentistry field of healthcare was the first to implement this technological advancement. Contemporarily, many facilities have adapted this and can obtain health information of patients easily. This paper seeks to critique the Health Information System with reference to the USA.

During his tenure, President George Bush assented to a administrative order that generated the founding of typically the “ Office of the National Coordinator for Wellness Information Technology (ONCHIT)”. This was brought under the “ U. S. Section of Health and Individual Services”. Somehow, this begun a necessity for all those well being systems to adapt the particular Health Information System by way of electronic means. In substance, the federal government of the U. S has played the key role for making this particular decision. The “ Department of Health and Human Services” acts as the particular overall seer in ensuring that the health systems adhere to this government recommendation. Furthermore, it has formulated regulatory rules of which advocate for the use of computers in order to record information about health. In inclusion to certifying the make use of of Health Information System, the particular federal government further gives incentives for practitioners as well as the health facilities. The “ National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)” and “ American Hospital Association (AHA)” are among the key element federal organizations that have got been set up to be able to assess the implementation associated with the Health Information Program (Blumenthal, 2006).

A team of expert physicians working under the NAMCS annually assesses the way Health Information System will be being implemented in typically the U. S health facilities. According to the MARYLAND and President of the particular “ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)”, Chief Medical Editor, Nancy Synderman, the particular use of Health Information Systems has been on the increase since 2011. Physicians can attribute this progress to the desire to be able to receive financial incentives through the government. In relationship to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act regarding 2009, health facilities and physicians alike are needed to fulfill an amount of requirements before they may be considered for the economic incentive. The Chief Health care Editor of RWJF realizes that this is an important step by the federal government to ensure that patient medical information is free from danger (Painter, 2012).

The use of computer systems in health systems superior after the progressive developments of technology. The use of such technology inside health systems could be traced to 1959. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation takes on a major role in neuro-scientific health care. This base provides financial assistance in order to anumber of Health Details Systems. Among this can be the Indiana Health Information Exchange. Subsequent to its creation, the Indiana Health Information Exchange knowledgeable numerous challenges. For case, matters regarding culture since well as consumer perspectives, made it difficult regarding the organization to share public health information (Painter, 2012). Following its original focus on issuing information to primary care medical professionals, this new changes posed an excellent challenge for the particular Indiana Information about health Exchange, since; the new system would require it to offer public information. Additionally, this raised concern among the stakeholders of the organization regarding what kind of details was required to end up being availed towards the public.

Primarily, the Health Information System in the In Information Exchange was created by means of the federal requirement of healthcare facilities to implement new techniques in processing their information. Initially, information was availed more quickly considering that, it had been only intended for a new sizeable public comprising associated with primary physicians. However, together with the demand to avail information to the general public, the Indiana Health Information Exchange, operating under the particular RWJF required to improve on its technology and upgrade its system. The then national coordinator in the “ Office of the Nationwide Coordinator for Health Details Technology”, David Blumenthal, MD, and M. M. G advocated for this by encouraging physicians to avail their information in digital form from the traditional record keeping. This move would certainly then enable them because well as hospitals to supply public information with respect to the federal necessity (Schoenbaum et al., 2003).

Most of the systems in use under the RWJF as well as the Indiana Health Information Exchange were developed in house. Prior to the federal requirement to avail health information to the public, the Indiana Health Information Exchange was implementing electronic systems in processing its health information. Essentially, this was a key consideration for organizations, which sought to receive financial incentives from the government. These incentives further enable the health system to enhance its operations by acquiring relevant infrastructure. However, despite the existing structures, the organization had to obtain the appropriate software for enhancing the new requirements (Painter, 2012).

Consequently, there was need to outsource technical assistance. Considering that this is a new invention, there was need for implementing new policies that would direct the effectiveness of the same. This was developed both through in house measures as well as through external forces. The federal government has provided feasible directives that govern the implementation of Health Information Systems. There was need to incorporate these requirements to the existing regulations within the organization to enable the physicians and medical practitioners to operate effectively (Schoenbaum et al., 2003).

In the advent of implementing Health Information Systems in health facilities, especially in the Indiana Health Information Exchange, stakeholders were consulted. They played a vital role in the process of implementing the Health Information Systems. For instance, they helped in the analysis of the information content and helped to determine which information should be availed to the public and which should be withheld. Considering that this organization only focused on the primary physicians, changing the system to include the public necessitated a need to restructure the type and content of information to be disseminated. The stakeholders came in handy at helping the management to identify the appropriate information to be availed for the beneefit of the public (Painter, 2012).

Additionally, the stakeholders like the RWJF, which seeks to ensure proper health care for the citizens of U.S and the federal government, which is a key player in ensuring that its citizens can access proper health care enabled the health facility to advance its systems by providing financial support. In an advent of adapting new technologies, organizations face the challenge of financing the same. Without the help of sponsors or donors, most organizations fail to implement fully. Financial incentives from the federal government play an important role in enabling the health facility to meet new challenges and tackle upcoming issues (Blumenthal, 2006).

Other vital stakeholders include the consumers of the health services. This group of stakeholders comes in handy especially in ensuring the continued existence of health facilities. Considering that they are at the forefront of receiving health care services, consumers of health care need to be reassured of privacy of their health information and security o the same. The Health Information Systems could pose a danger to consumer privacy especially if the health information is not properly guarded.

Summary

In summary, Health Information System denote a process via which health facilities process information obtained from varied sources which helps in the formulation of health policies. Health information can be processed in varied ways, either electronically by use of computers or via paper basis by use of clinical guidelines. The diverse nature of the sources of health information in a health facility pose a challenge to the management of the same mostly because of the disintegrated nature of the information gathered. The use of computers in the field of health care services obtained its popularity with the advent of computers. In the early centuries, the dentistry facilities were the only health services using computer technology to process medical information. Following the assent to administrative order by President George Bush in 2004, many health facilities took to this new technology. With the establishment of government bodies like the ONCHIT under the State Department of Health and Human Services, health facilities were able to achieve the Health Information System standard from the financial incentives they received.

According to the President of RWJF, use of computers in recording health information has been on the increase following the government’s initiative to provide financial incentives for the health facilities. To implement this system effectively, health facilities have had to overcome a number of challenges. For instance, cultural issues as well as consumer perspective; changing the system structures has required the health facilities to seek the opinion of their stakeholders as well assess their current structure. This helps in incorporating the new requirements to the existing system, making it easier for the health facilities to meet the government expectations.

As discussed above, the implementation of the Health Information System calls for various considerations and changes. For instance, in the case of the Indiana Health Information Exchange, new techniques had to be put up to facilitate this technology. New software was acquired to enable the organization to facilitate the provision of health information to the public. Additionally, technical assistance was sought from the RWJF and the federal government enabling the management to effectively restructure its system and observe the regulations. Consumer perspective was also considered to ensure that the health information issued to the public was appropriate and that no privacy issues were breeched.

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Adlerian and Reality Therapy essay

Adlerian therapy and reality therapy are two examples of psychotherapy commonly used in counseling. Psychotherapy counseling of clients is through interaction between a professional counselor and a client. This treatment tries to improve the well being of an individual. Schools and psychological institutions widely use Alderian and Reality therapy to improve mental health. The two mentioned counseling approaches uses different concepts, but they share other things.

Adlerian therapy bases on the interactions and conflicts that creates an individual’ s feelings or ego. According in order to Adler, ego is the particular epi-center of personality, and it makes an personal (Carlson, 2005). It stimulates and also informs the client in order to proper the mistakes in the collaborative way. In very a related way, Fact therapy, bases on the particular connection of a particular person and other people (Wubbolding, 2010). The unsatisfactory or not enough connection between people creates problems at the individual levl.

Commonalities

The concepts regarding both therapies focus about the present. Adler believes that the childhood experience tend not to matter as much, but it is the belief and the lessons sucked from the past that issues most (Carlson, 2005). Reality therapy, alternatively, argues that the unsatisfactory relation that will we have currently, leads to the difficulties and not the past.

While giving reality therapy, it is necessary to avoid blaming, criticism or making complains since it discourages the client. Adlerian therapy also involves a lot of encouragements which builds self-confidence and enhances courage to take life positively. 

Differences

While Alderman Therapy works on rediscovering self, Reality therapy aims at reconnecting the client and other people. It involves looking into the issues causing the problem. The reality therapy also eemphasizes on the realization that it is only through excuses that the relation breaks; and workable plans support the reconnection of individual. In contrast,  Adlerian therapy aims at the rediscovering of self and developing better behaviors. In addition to the contrast, Adlerian therapy believes that people with the inferiority complex do not function properly in the society just as in the case of birth order. On the other hand, the use of choice theory enables the client realize that the only person they can take control over is themselves, and the reconnection with other people will work out well.

Conclusion

Whether on the approach of Adler or reality, the most important, expected result is the accommodating and thriving relationship between an individual and other people. Be it through self-recognition (Adler) or appreciation and maintaining competent relationship with other people (reality therapy), counseling is undoubtedly helpful. 

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