Dyspareunia and Vaginismus essay

These are disorder associated with sexual pain that affects women exclusively. Dyspareunia refers to pain during intercourse while Vaginismus refers to sudden, involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles that interfere with sexual intercourse resulting to a painful sexual experience. Some of the causes of painful intercourse are;

    • Infections associated together with vaginal yeast
    • Rape and other physically related abuses.
    • One witnessing another person being sexually abused is additionally
    • Exposure to be able to domestic violence at a great early age
    • Fear of pain which usually comes from the idea that vaginal penetration is painful at the first moment.
    • General anxiety
    • Stress
    • A restrictive parental input for the woman grows knowing that sex is filthy

Attacks associated with the woman reproductive system like, fibroids, endometriosis, cysts, pelvic inflammatory disease usually caused by simply Chlamydia. Also, complications just like ectopic pregnancy are identified to lead to painful sex.

Pain during sex can be superficial or deep. There are clearly stipulated causes of ” light ” pain during penetration. Shortage of lubrication is principally typically the main cause. This results from short and poorly carried out fore play. The mental fear of a woman towards sex in terms of the size associated with the penis is held responsible as a cause regarding painful superficial penetration. Ladies who are unused to be able to larger men before are usually susceptible to painful coitus because of fear of pain during penetration. Menopausal and post-menopausal dryness may also cause superficial baking pan during penetration. This will be because of changes in hormonal balances.

Several associated with painful intercourse usually are;

  • Burning sensation in the vagina or in the vulva
  • Inability to achieve orgasm
  • The lack of enough muscle relaxation for intercourse to be possible
  • Inadequate production of vaginal lubricants before sex and dryness during sex
  • There is low desire for sex (Libido) which is caused by hormonal, psychological or relationship related problems.

There are misconceptions regarding the disorders associated with painful coitus. One of these myths is the belief that sex must be painful. Many women believe that penetration is painful. This is not true. The fact is sex must be enjoyable and pain free if done well under relaxed state of mind for both partners. When a woman experiences pain during sex, she should immediately seek medical attention from a qualified practitioner. Pain during sex is abnormal and should be treated carefully since it can destroy a couple’s sex life.

The prevalence of Vaginismus in Morocco and Sweden are 7%. Prevalence Dyspareunia among the British women is 3% while it is between 18-20% among the Australian women. In a study by Clayton, and Hamilton involving interviewing randomly sampled respondents, it was deduced that, 10-15% of the total respondents who were women had experienced painful intercourse in the last 6 months. This shows that this is a condition that needs to be addressed urgently in the society.

The psychosomatic concept of Dyspareunia and Vaginnismus

Sex and sexuality is a delicate subject. Slight psychological inhibition can have extremely detrimental effects on a couple’s sex life. All the body function systems that relay on the autonomic nervous system like cardiovascular system and sexual function are severely affected by cognitive and emotional factors; therefore, they are linked to psychosomatic disorders. When a woman is frightened or angry before or during sexual intercourse, the chances are that she will not produce the natural vaginal lubricants, and this will result into painful intercourse.

Sexual intercourse creates a bond between couples. It is a way of showing intimacy that cannot be neglected in the human society. Without sex, many relationships break. Sex should be performed in a relaxed and comfortable mood in order to achieve its purpose. Sexual disorders are today the main cause of marriage and relationship breakages. When one partner or both do not enjoy the pleasure associated with sex, then a tremendous problem looms. Therefore, sexual disorders like Dyspareunia should be treated urgently and properly.

Treatment of painful intercourse will include measures like;

  • The man should take enough time in love play to allow vaginal relaxation and natural flow of the vaginal lubricant.
  • In the cases of dryness, the couple should use sex lubricants like Eros.
  • Administration of testosterone to women with low levels of androgens is also a treatment strategy for painful coitus.

For those with menopausal and post-menopausal

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Early Sexual Education essay

We are living in a time when sexual activity is at its peak. The country has suffered immensely with the rise of sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, and abortions. This, therefore, calls for the intervention of early sex education to salvage the horrendous situation. Sex education is a program in which the vulnerable children and youths are furnished with information about the actual act of sex. It also teaches ways in which one can avoid sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies that may lead to abortion. Among the information provided to control early pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, are the use of contraception and through abstinence program.

In the United States, teenage girls conceive premarital pregnancies, which are unintended. The teenagers find themselves in this because first and foremost they believe that conception is rare and secondly they do not use contraceptives since they did not anticipate the sexual activity. Not only do the youths risk conception but also risk the possibility of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) by engaging in vulnerable sex. Such issues demand the necessity of teaching sex education from elementary school through high school.

Eating Disorder essay

Eating disorders can be defined as the presence of abnormalities in the eating habits of individuals that is broadly characterised by consumption of insufficient or excess food as required by the body. Research studies have identified this problem as harmful to the physical and mental health of patients. Initially, it was argued that it affected the female population only, but in the recent years, studies have proved that it affects males as well, though rarely. Researchers have found out that women are at the highest risk of developing disorders associated with eating. Some scholars and critics argue that westernisation has significantly contributed to the risk of contracting this disorder associated with consumption of food.

Medical researchers have identified various key components associated with this disorder as the general interactions that occur between the homeostatic, motivational, and self-regulatory control processes in human beings. The various causes of this disorder have not been entirely understood through the studies carried out. Though, it is evident that medical conditions appear to be its major causes. Other research findings have concluded that the idealisation of the cultural practices such as the desire to become slim and the general youthfulness of individuals have contributed to its development considerably. Girls who have developed ADHD and PTSD conditions are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders. Other studies have also found that foster girls develop conditions that are related to food disorders. The foster girls majorly develop bulimia nervosa disorder.

The various types of disorders as identified are bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorders, and non-specified eating disorders. Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are the most common types of eating disorders in the United Kingdom according to various findings of research studies carried out. Peer pressure has also been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders among some individuals. It is especially common among youth who have reached the adolescent stage of growth, as most of them are influenced by their peers in terms of adopting certain eating behaviour that might prove to be detrimental to their health. Research has also shown that the genetic composition of an individual can trigger the development of such conditions. Substance abuse has also been attributed to the development of eating disorders, especially the bulimia nervosa. There is effective treatment to the eating disorder, and its consequences might be severe and leading to death.

Problem Statement

The specific problem to this research is that a large number of children do develop eating disorders at their early stages of life. The research seeks to explore the various causes associated with it and enumerate various recommendations on how to mitigate this problem.

Purpose of the particular Study

The particular main purpose of this research study is in order to determine the various causes that will results in the ever increasing eating disorders purposely inside kids. The study also seeks to distinguish the various key elements that possess generated the eating problem prevalence in a few age groupings and study the many outcomes that results from the particular development of these eating issues.

Significance regarding the Study

The research study will be significant in that it will endeavour to sensitise the larger population about the various elements from the eating disorders. It will also strive to make recommendations to various stakeholders charged with the duty of mitigating the consuming disorder by outlining typically the steps or actions that they may take to eradicate this problem.

Study Methodology and Design

Considering that the research is usually qualitative, the design to be used will be simple random sampling that will end up being employed in determining the particular individuals to include inside the study population. In the presentation of the particular study findings, the data from the population selections will be analysed extremely using the taxonomy technique of data analysis. It will be in compliance with some predetermined program such as the age group, social class, geographical location etc. In the circumstance of this research study, typically the predetermined system of info classification will be age. The sampled population will be classified according in order to age and analysed. The particular usage of taxonomy to clssify the sampled populace was necessitated by their simplicity in nature, plus its easy remembrance. It was also found to get much easier as in comparison to other techniques of information analysis. The data gathered is classified as primary data and secondary data. The primary data will certainly be collected through typically the usage of research tools such as structured interview and observations made about the various patients affected by this condition. The secondary data will generally be collected through typically the reviews on the available data and their analysis.

Theoretical Analysis

The research study is concentrated majorly on the youngsters within the age team between 8 and 14 years. The study also limited itself for the population within London and does not extend to other outside regions.

Scope of the Study

Eating disorders; Anorexia essay

Theme: Eating disorders; Anorexia

Topic: Contemporary effects of the mass media on eating habits that lead to anorexia

Thesis: How and why the mass media has become a mediating structure between college students and their bodies by sending powerful messages that ‘thinness’ is the ideal body image for every American woman. A combination of ubiquitous messages for eating habits and beauty in the mass media, especially through advertising has led to uncertainty and body image dissatisfaction amongst many college women in the United States.

Purpose: To examine the framework of causality of culturally-inflicted manifestations in regards to eating habits and body image disorders among college women and, in particular, to examine what role the mass media through advertising has played in promoting the concept of an ideal female body, and how it has impacted the mental and physical health of these women.

Research strategy: This analysis will be based on two scholarly journal articles that discuss how the mass media impacts women’s thinking about their body image. I will also conduct a content analysis of a popular female’s magazine, Internet and other media that encourage women to don the ideal body image to highlight the gravity of this problem. The above will be supported by several psychological and medical results about anorexia.


As Curry and Beam (364) vividly put it, anorexia is main plus growing problem that influences countless American women. Anorexic nervosa is a situation that is characterized by typically the sufferer’ s refusal in order to maintain a normal entire body weight. Consequently, sufferers conclusion up possessing distorted physique image, due to their own intense concern with gaining the body weight. The statistics concerning this problem are thinking. According to (Groesz et al 12), 91 % of women surveyed on college or university campuses across America conceded which they had tried in order to control their weight through dieting. About the same note, twenty five percent of those selected conceded that they experienced been associated with purging in addition to binging as a weight administration technique. In a survey of 200 females found in college campuses, 58 % felt the pressure to don certain body photos and weights and a main portion of people resorted to dieting, as good as using unhealthy weight control behaviors, such as getting laxatives, fasting, skipping foods and vomiting (Vandereycken 116). Probably the most unfortunate thing is that the advertising is in order to blame for these behaviours, because American college learners are arguably the biggest consumers of mass press content.

Correlating Studies between Media and Its Influence on Women Body Image

It has become apparent that the mass media promotes and advertises a quite unhealthy tendency of extreme diets and other unhealthy eating behaviors to the most gullible group of women, woman college students. In fact , typically the negative impact that bulk media has on thoughts, hearts and bodies regarding these women has come to be a gospel to numerous people. Most media options place images of lean and emancipated females on their covers. By doing so, they end upwards influencing the subconscious brain from the naï ve college or university student who wants to don the particular stereotyped picture of the standard American woman (Vandereycken 120). These women unknowingly devote their money trying to be able to achieve this unattainable fete they will regularly see in the particular media advertising. Women associated with all ages, but specifically youthful women, watch films, TV, read magazines, search tInternet and other press products that are filled along with images of bodies.

Groesz et al (16) asserts that when compared with local community controls, the main portion of young women with anorxia nervosa are more likely to report that ads in newspapers and publications have influenced their body system image, their endorsement of slender beauty ideal in addition to their diet plan. Analysts regarding media content contend of which television programs, web content, motion pictures and magazines persistently, overtly and frequently glorify typically the strict weight management in addition to slenderness, and vilify getting fat as being unattractive, unhealthy and immoral. These types of omnipresent depictions of the particular ideal slender image are usually unattainable, but electronic in addition to print media blur boundaries between reality and a fictionalized ideal (Berger 109). Consequently, college students who are usually soliciting for guidance on how to become an actual American woman easily draw out thinness schemas from typically the mass media.

The particular Association of the Effects of Mass Media and the particular Westernization of the Ideal Body According to Sex

It is apparent that socio-cultural elements affect female and men teenagers and youth in a different way. While contact with muscular values is significantly associated along with males, females have reported to prefer thinner bodies (Groesz 11). Numerous studies have used weight as a dissatisfaction indicator for ladies. Actually, the ideal entire body weight for a typical American woman has been decreasing progressively over earlier three decades. This trend is usually clear in cinemas plus television programs, which encourage thinness like a social tradition for women. Images of which are transmitted by the particular mass media tend to reinforce dominant cultural ideologies plus reject representations that question these stereotypes. A CBS TELEVISION STUDIOS news report indicates that will as a result associated with numerous advertisements that appear in different mass mass media, weight loss programs, diet plan pills, and a myriad of weight control diets have grown to be so in America to extent of its citizens spending a staggering $35 billion annually on these items (Vandereycken 122). Unfortunately, the particular main part of these types of products which can be quite costly do not yield the particular expected results. As the result, would be beneficiaries turn out to be desperate and end upward engaging in unhealthy eating routine that lead to problems, like anorexia nervosa.

Johnson (13) shows that most of the stereotyped body messages often elicit discriminatory dynamics regarding the ideal body image, and end up conveying false ideas on how to attain these ideal images through processes of body transformation that trigger unhealthy behaviors. These messages, which are transmitted through advertisements, associate an ideal body for a woman with youthfulness and thinness. The reemphasis of these ideals have created the false notion that an ideal body image for a woman is immutable and static, resulting in a selection of certain body shapes and invisibility and exclusion of others. This leads, as aforementioned to a homogenization of an ideal body by gender. Johnson (12) condemns women’s magazines for sending confusing messages to women. He notes that in the Vogue magazine, many articles and images are about exercising and dieting, leading women towards thinness.   The sad thing is that college women are faced with these contradictions every day.

Anorexia and Internet

There’s no denying the fact that Internet is not only the most preferred, but also the most prevalent mass medium amongst college students, in this case, female students. As Curry and Ray (359) discuss, not only does this media form encourage women to engage in this not balanced eating habit, but also provides socially ostracized, isolated and stigmatized people with a platform on which they can connect with others of their kind. Due to its isolating nature, Internet contributes immensely to the cultural falseness that is characterized with gullible women. Sufferers of anorexia are particular attracted to misleading support groups that encourage anorexic behaviors, because they give members a sense of belonging. Often referred to as pro-anaa, these groups encourage their members to embrace the sense and pride of identity associated with their condition. Anorexic individuals are joining such online support groups, because they supposedly receive support, comfort and partners who engage in mutual fasting, encouragement, unconditional understanding and accountability provision (Curry & Ray 363).

Internet also provides anorectic women with an arena where most honest revelations can be heard without harsh or critical judgment.  As Curry and Ray (364) concede, Internet leads to artificial relationships and interpersonal isolation. Isolation results from the need by the individual suffering from anorexia to be dishonest or hide her condition from friends and family. This is aimed at protecting their secrets regarding their condition and avoiding consequences or sanctions, such as negative attention and hospitalization that might ensure after being discovered. As it can be seen, this behavior encourages the artificial recreational and isolation nature of Internet and prevents the anorexia sufferer from engaging in genuine and honest communication with those who can help. It is imperative to understand that the aftermath of such behavior is not acceptable to concerned parties.

Citing Noris et al Curry and Ray (362) reveal that most of pro-anorexia websites are quite secretive, because they give disclaimers that discourage non-anorexic individuals from visiting their websites. This serves a distinct purpose of literally keeping off people that might monitor and expose their activities.

Theoretical Explanations for Development of Anorexia

The development of this eating disorder and its relationship to the consumption of media content can be explained using the Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory. According to Bandura, people learn by observing behaviors of other people and also by observing outcomes of these behaviors (Groesz 15). In regards to anorexia, women tend to observe behaviors of their preferred female celebrities, as depicted in various mass media. In most cases, these celebrities are underweight and are considered attractive by the American culture. In the end, dieting behaviors of college women are vicariously enforced every time they see celebrities being praised for donning enhanced body images or being underweight. Many times, college students who had previously being living normal lives embrace extreme diets that may last for three days or more, because they have been led to believe that if they look like these celebrities, they will end up gaining popularity and be well-liked (Vandereycken 123).


To sum up, the discourse has highlighted the fact that the mass media does impact the mental and physical healthy of college students of the female gender in a negative way.  This indicates that thinness has been embraced as the cultural standard of attractiveness for American women. Therefore, the only way of stopping these adverse effects from the mass media is to teach women not to judge themselves to the women in covers of newspapers and magazine and set beauty standards by beauty products manufacturers. On the contrary, they should shun these depictions and live healthy lifestyles by believing in their internal beauty through improving their self-confidence and self-esteem. Experts who study the cause of anorexia have established that the accumulation of this set of messages and ideal body images have led a different way of thinking regarding women’s body appearance known as the “thinness schema.” This thinness schema means that most women in American colleges identify and agree with assertions that beauty is the key project of a woman’s life, and that successful women can and must control themselves through rigorous exercise fashion, and dieting to conform to the revered lean look.

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Effectiveness of behavioral treatment for children with autism essay

The proposed research topic is: Effectiveness of behavioral treatment for children with autism. The main research question is: which behavioral approach is best for children with autism? Behavioral approaches have been recognized as crucial ways of addressing the deficits and delays that are common with autism (Sallows & Graupner, 1996).

Findings of modern research indicate that many children with autism can make dramatic improvement and achieve normalcy (Sheinkopf, 1998). Additionally, many researchers agree that intensive behavioral treatment may result in substantial gains for many children who suffer from autism (Horner, 2002).  Children who suffer from autism face extreme difficulty when developing normal relationships with other children (Matson & Benavidez, 1996). They also find it difficult sharing in the interests that their peers have (Eldevik, 2006). In most cases, these children may not be able to interpret non-verbal cues that are necessary for communication and facial expressions. When they become adults, most people who suffer from autism may have language impairment. In fact, many of them do not speak at all (Odom, 2003). The rationale for this study is the existing gaps in knowledge relating to the effectiveness of behavioral therapy for autism treatment.

Eating Disorders as a Social Problem essay

Numerous facts prove the assumption that eating disorders are no longer the problem of an individual, but rather the problem of whole society. There are two main types of eating disorders – anorexia and bulimia. The majority of diseases are similar to anorexia or bulimia but have  slightly different characteristics. Recently, overeating has also  attracted the attention of researchers and the media; it is a type of eating disorder as well. Although eating disorders are primarily observed in women and girls, men and boys are also subject to the risk. People with eating disorders can also suffer from numerous physiological complications such as heart diseases or kidney failure, which can lead to death.

Social importance of the problem of eating disorders is defined by the threat of disability of younger patients and decreased overall survival due to frequent development of severe comorbidities. These include: diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and related disorders, sleep apnea syndrome, hyperuricemia, gout, reproductive dysfunction, gallstones, osteoarthritis, some cancers (in women – endometrial cancer, cervical, ovarian, breast; in men – prostate cancer; colon cancer in both sexes), varicose veins of the lower limbs, and hemorrhoids. Eating disorders reduce resistance to colds and infectious diseases, and in addition greatly increase the risk of complications after surgery and traumas. Therefore, the problem of eating disorders is becoming increasingly important and emerges as a threat to the social life of people. This  problem occurs regardless of the social and professional status, area of residence, age, and gender. . In general, the prevalence of these diseases in developed countries is so high that it has become a major social problem, not less important than, for example, HIV or AIDS.

Eating Disorders as a Social Problem


Eating disorders in connection with the pathology of internal organs or mental disorders have long been known to physicians of different specialties and were described in detail in the relevant literature. However, in the late 20th century doctors in developed countries faced numerous cases of eating disorders in girls and young women, whose condition was generally healthy. This form of disease was called “anorexia nervosa”, i.e. lack of appetite emerging due to the nervous condition. Today the complex of eating disorders includes several different disorders and is one of the most widespread health problems. According to Gordon (2001), “the rise of eating disorders in the United States and Western Europe… is a modern epidemic and has coincided with a number of sweeping changes in Western societies in the second half of the 20th century” (p. 2). Numerous facts prove the assumption that eating disorders are no longer the problem of individual, but rather the problem of the whole society.

The Facts about Eating Disorders

Until the mid-20 th hundred years, cases of anorexia in addition to bulimia were extremely unusual. For instance , only 4 patients were hospitalized in Fresh York since 1916 in order to 1925. Only in the particular sixties an explosion inside the anorectic population took place. In the U. H. today more than a few million people suffer coming from eating disorders: about 5% of women and 1% of men (Ray, 2005, p. 98). More as compared to 90% of such disorders get started in adolescence.

Because to obesity, in the particular records of the period of ancient Egyptian, Ancient greek language, Roman and Indian civilizations it was already considered  a vice. Literary sources contain aversion to obesity and the tendency toward control. It was noted by Hippocrates that lifestyle of overly obese individuals is short, and that will obese women are sterile. For the treatment associated with obesity he recommended to limit the amount associated with food eaten pay more attention to physical exercise.   Fat, being typically the brilliant invention of character with a protective function in the past, has become impacting millions of people. In general, the thing is a global issue affecting all countries. According to WHO, there are more than 1. 7 million people who are overweight or obese.   In many developed countries, 15 to be able to 25% of the grown-up population suffers from weight problems.

Recently, an increased incidence of obesity in children and adolescents has been observed all above the world: in created countries 25% of teenagers are overweight and 15% obese. Excess weight on childhood is a significant predictor of obesity within adulthood: 50% of youngsters who had excessive bodyweight in the age of 6 become obese like adults, and in teens this probability increases to be able to 80%.

Anorexia therapy occurs in 0. 5– 1% and bulimia nervosa in 0. 9– 4. 1% of the women adolescent and young adult population, while  additional 5-13% suffer from partial syndrome bulimia and anorexia (WHO, 2005). While to the mortality prices, “ crude mortality rates are 4. 0% regarding anorexia nervosa, 3. 9% for bulimia nervosa, in addition to 5. 2% for ingesting disorder not otherwise specified” (Kaye, 2011).

Bulimia and anorexia are characterized by extremes. These kinds of occur when an individual is affected with severe eating problems, such as excessive decrease of food intake or perhaps severe overeating, the perception of extreme displeasure or stress about one’ s weight or body.   An individual with this particular problem can start to eat only a little more or much less than usual, but shortly the desire to take in is out of manage. Eating disorders is an extremely serious issue, and despite considerable scientific efforts, the neurological, developmental and social elements remain  hard to know.

There are a couple of most widespread types of eating disorders – anorexia and bulimia. Nearly all diseases are similar to beoing underweight or bulimia but have   somewhat diverse features. Recently, overeating has    attracted the attention of researchers and the media; that is a type associated with eating disorder as well.

Eating disorders repeatedly occur during puberty or early on adulthood, but some scientific studies show that they can occur in childhood or, on the other hand, in the adult age. The probability of an eating disorder in women and girls is higher than found in men. Among the total number of patients with anorexia or bulimia, men and boys by various quotes constitute from 5 to 15 percent. This portion is higher among sufferers suffering from overeating, building 35 percent (WHO, 2005). However, according to Shannon Ray, “ specific frequency rates among males will be difficult to determine and may be higher than reported due to ght hidden nature of anoresia or bulimia and the perception of which anoresia or bulimia arc found exclusively in females” (Ray, 2005, p. 98). Eating disorders are serious but curable diseases with complex psychological and biological roots. They are often accompanied by simply other dangerous psychiatric problems. Patients with eating conditions can also are afflicted by numerous physiological complications such as heart diseases threatening the life span of a patient.

The outward symptoms of anorexia nervosa consist of skinniness, persistent pursuit regarding a thin figure, and reluctance to keep up a normal body mass, a misrepresentation associated with body image and also a sturdy fear of being fat, abnormality of menstruation cycle in girls and ladies, and very troubling eating practices. Most  patients with anorexia try to shed weight by means of an overly strict diet; the others lose a couple pounds by artificially induced vomiting or by abusing laxatives/ purgatives.

Individuals suffering from anorexia consider that they are overweight even when they are dying of hunger or obviously undernourished. An personal becomes obsessed with diet and weight control. Patients with anorexia typically consider all products, count calories, and eat only inside really small amounts and only certain products. Some individuals with anorexia recover regular diet after a single course of treatment, other people suffer from relapses. Folks with chronic anorexia endure more. In the program of many years, while they fight with the particular disease, your their actual physical health deteriorates.

Based to some studies, individuals with anorexia are 10x more likely to perish as a result of a typical disease as compared to people without disorders. The most common factors t death include cardiac arrest and imbalance regarding electrolytes and fluids in the body. There will be also a serious risk of suicide.   Within a fairly large number regarding people with anorexia right now there are also mental plus psychological diseases such as depression, nervousness, obsessive conduct, substance abuse, circulatory and neurological disorders, and also issues of physical development.

Bulimia is connected with repeated episodes of usage of unusually large quantities of meals, plus the sense of uncontrollable wish to eat. The situations of overeating are followed by another type of actions that compensate with regard to overeating, for instance , purging (when a person artificially induces vomiting and frequently makes use of purgatives or diuretics), a new strict diet, and/or limited physical activity.

Unlike the cases of anorexic, the of people together with bulimia is normally within typically the norm for their grow older and height. Similar to patients suffering from anorexia, they are scared of starting to be fat, want anxiously in order to lose weight, and are really dissatisfied using the size in addition to shape of their physiques. Typically, episodes of hambre (binge food absorption) occur in secret, as they will often go together with the sensation of revulsion in addition to shame. Cycles of overindulge eating and cleaning  on a regular basis repeat a couple of times a few days. Those who suffer coming from bulimia also suffer through mental health problems such like despair, nervousness, and/or material abuse.   There usually are also physiological disorders triggered by episodes of getting rid of, such as electrolyte discrepancy, problems of gastro-intestinal area, as well as dental diseases.

Binge eating or compulsive overeating is also an eating disorder associated with repeated episodes of binge eating, during which an individual experiences lack of control over the process of eating. Binge eating is not supplemented by purging, exercise or diet. Due to this fact people suffering from compulsive overeating are often overweight or fat. This disorder is connected with the sense of guilt and shame, which can lead to more bouts of overeating.  Obese people suffering from binge eating often have comorbid psychiatric disorders such as nervousness, despair, and personality disorders. Furthermore, there is a direct link between obesity, circulatory disease, and hypertension.

While eating disorders are mainly observed in women and girls, men and boys are also subject to  risk. Every forth teenager with anorexia is male. Eating disorders affect men and women equally. As well as women suffering from eating disorders, men have a distorted attitude towards their bodies and often suffer from body dismorphic disorder.

The same type of disorder which is associated by a greater concern for the body often leads to excessive muscle building. While some individuals with eating disorder want to lose weight, other patients want to gain it. Those who think that they are too thin are at a higher risk of using steroids or other hazardous drugs to grow the muscle mass. Men with eating disorders have the same set of emotional, somatic, and behavioral problems and symptoms as women, but for different reasons it is more difficult to diagnose their condition correctly, because eating disorders are stereotypically believed to be a purely female problem.

Social Aspects

Social importance of the problem of eating disorders is defined by the threat of disability of younger patients and decreased overall survival due to frequent development of severe comorbidities. These include: diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and related disorders, sleep apnea syndrome, hyperuricemia, gout, reproductive dysfunction, gallstones, osteoarthritis, some cancers (in women – endometrial cancer, cervical, ovarian, breast; in men – prostate cancer; colon cancer in both sexes), varicose veins of the lower limbs, and hemorrhoids. Eating disorders reduce resistance to colds and infectious diseases, and in addition greatly increase the risk of complications after surgery and traumas. Therefore, the problem of eating disorders is becoming increasingly important and emerges as a threat to the social life of people. This  problem occurs regardless of the social and professional status, area of residence, age, and gender.

The problem of well-being of people suffering from eating disorders in today’s society is quite urgent, massive, and socially significant. Modern society provokes unintentional obesity in its citizens promoting the consumption of high-calorie foods that contain a large share of fat, and at the same time, due to technological progress, it promotes a sedentary lifestyle. In the same way modern representations of beauty and life success stimulate anorexia.

A lot of social and technological factors have contributed to the rising prevalence of obesity in recent decades. The World Health Organizatiion (WHO) has concluded that the main cause of obesity epidemic in the world is the lack of labor and spontaneous physical activity, combined with the excessive consumption of fatty, high-calorie foods.  Obesity considerably reduces life expectancy by an average of 3-5 years with a little overweight, and by 15 years in patients with severe obesity. Nearly two out of three human deaths occur from diseases associated with disorders of metabolism (WHO, 2005).

Eating disorders represent a “disease of epidemic proportions and a social problem” (Gard & Wright, 2005, p. 182). Most  people suffer not only from the diseases connected with eating disorders and mobility limitation, but they also have low self-esteem, depression, emotional distress, and other psychological problems caused by prejudice, discrimination, and bias that are demonstrated towards them in the community. In the society, the attitude to patients with weight problems is often inadequate.

At the household level it is often considered that obesity is the punishment for gluttony and laziness, therefore the treatment of obesity is a private matter. Indeed, public opinion is far from the idea that extremely fat or thin people are sick and that the cause of their disease is more often than not in the unrestrained passion for food, but in complex metabolic disorders, leading to excessive accumulation of body fat.

The social significance of this problem is that the person suffering from an eating disorder can hardly get a job. The research carried out by Puhl and Brownell (2005) has proved that “there is a clear and consistent pattern of discrimination against obese persons in major life areas of employment, medical care, and education” (p. 111). For example, obese people suffer from discriminatory restrictions in promotions, everyday inconveniences, restrictions of movement, choice of clothing, and inconveniences in carrying out adequate hygienic measures. Often they suffer from sexual problems. In children, “problem-eating behaviors can go hand in hand with increasing social isolation and withdrawal, and a reluctance to engage in peer activities” (Nicholls & Bryant-Waugh, 2003, p. 417). Therefore, the society has not yet finally recognized the need to create and implement the programs to prevent eating disorders.

There is an assumption that if humanity manages to solve the problem of eating disorders, especially obesity, life expectancy will increase by 4 years. To compare, if the problem of cancer is solved, life expectancy will increase by only 1 year. The urgency of the problem of eating disorders lies in the fact that the number of overweight people is progressively increasing. This increase constitutes 10% from the same number for every 10 years. It is estimated that if this trend continues, by the middle of this century almost  entire population of the developed countries will suffer from eating disorders.

Economists have calculated that the person who invents an effective means of weight loss will become a billionaire in less than a minute (Oliver, 2006, p. 52). This reflects, on the one hand, the ineffectiveness of most diets and drugs for weight control; on the other hand, it demonstrates the importance of the issue. The above mentioned facts indicate that eating disorders are a burning problem, despite the fact that almost every month a new tool or method that promises a guaranteed weight control appears. Meanwhile the industry of production of various tablets, slimming belts, and other miraculous ways to lose or gain weight is thriving,  the body weight of an average individual is increasing year by year.

Anorexia, as well as obesity, can  be called the disease of the modern epoch. This is related to  the requirements that are put forward  regarding the physical condition of modern people, which is reflected in their psyche. The ongoing dialogue about the ugliness of obesity, critical looks, and teasing injure a sensitive personality and become the basis for formation of overvalued ideas to achieve a standard appearance.

Anorectic explosion among population is directly or indirectly associated with the emancipation of women, including them into productive activities and a broad scope of communication. A modern woman does not have the right to enjoy the natural beauty of her own body. If that happens, it will soon collapse entire corporations – drug companies, fashion houses, plastic surgery clinics, etc., built in the last decades. The media often lobby the interests of pharmaceutical companies and invent new ways of implementation of commodity fetishism regarding cosmetics and clothing.

In order to achieve an unhindered development, the beauty industry was forced to form a coalition which includes fashion houses, fashion designers, fashion magazines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies. “Extra” weight of the female body is outlawed. Painful thinness was declared an ideal of beauty. Since then, the new ideal of beauty and attractiveness has become an obsession for most women. A sick system has created a new symptom. Such actions encourage girls to give up their own image and personality and feel the sense of inferiority and frustration in order to move towards the so-called “perfection”, torturing themselves with diets, controlling food intake, and experiencing loss of health.


Deterioration of the social environment and dramatically increased number of harmful psychological effects led to increased prevalence of psychiatric and medical eating disorders, whose  mechanism is powered by emotional factors. The scope of these diseases includes a variety of abnormalities in the organs and systems due to the influence of certain stressful factors. Such eating disorders as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, psychogenic obesity have become a major social problem in the countries with a high level of economic development. Eating disorders are connected with a manifold increase in the incidence of hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, degenerative disc disease and spinal arthritis, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, various tumors, and other health problems. Among the existing eating disorders, obesity is the most dangerous, since it reduces life expectancy by an average of 3-5 years with moderate overweight and by 15 years in patients with severe obesity. In general, the prevalence of these diseases in developed countries is so high, that it has become a major social problem, no less important than HIV or AIDS.

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Effects of Addiction Essay essay

Addiction is a condition which manifests in an individual’s inability to control their craving for a certain element, substance, or practice. It is commonly associated with substance abuse as seen in most rehabilitation settings and other subjects constantly coming up in the media. Once an individual develops an addiction the effects are primarily manifested in various forms which could be behavioral or practical. My story is a testimony on the potentially destructive effects of addiction on a human’s life, career and family.

Behavioral effects of dependency include a drastic change inside patterns of normal behaviors. Here individuals exhibit severe behavioral elements. For instance, a person addicted to drugs might exhibit reliability on the substance such of which they are struggling to carry out anything else without it. These individuals are elementally referred to as ‘ slaves’ to be able to the habit or compound. Behavioral associated with addiction may also include an element of folks appearing to detest activities which they initially have a passion for in their daily lifestyles. In my case I concluded up neglecting my loved ones due to my more than dependency to alcohol as a result of stres and personal life changes, which ended upward becoming like my regular companion.

Practical effects of addiction include individuals adopting dangerous trends, for instance, there are extreme notions of practical effects of addiction manifested of family neglect when they are no longer in a position to sustain their habitual trends. Consider my family setting in which my mother’s family members decided to neglect me for neglecting them for a long time, actually 3 years. I have not talked nor called my family for that period. The reason is that we became self employed, hence we decided to close doors to asking for assistance. Initially, I had dollars and could support my sisters and mother by sending them thousand’s of money to help them pay for their bills. Due addiction to alcohol abuse we are no longer able to afford it.

 Now that I need help, my extended family are virtually unable nor in the slightest position to help me. In my job as a loan officer I was in a position to earn between 10 and 30 thousand dollars per month, but currently I am unable to do so because all of my hard earned money goes towards supporting and promoting my alcohol addiction.. This has a great effect as it cannot fit within my previous budget. Hence I am forced to spend past my normal budget. The effects of addiction to alcohol are very destructive and people need to avoid over dependency on addiction.

My numerous attempts to control my addiction have been implemented with great difficulty. This has reinstated my ability to give yet when I needed help from my family, they could not help me. The small success in controlling my addiction to alcohol has made me much happier in the moment than ever. Of course this came through overwhelming support from me, my husband and my kids.

Addiction is a dangerous condition that can affect anyone in real life. It common for us humans to develop assumptions that our habitual dependencies on certain substances cannot be classified as addiction. This only leads to late discovery when the effects of addiction have set in beyond control, to the extent that we are unable to support our loved ones. The truth is that we are indeed in a position to revert to our previous status only when we get the support needed. Addiction has harmful effects and should be avoided by all in order to attain good life.

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Effects of Depression on Memory essay

Depression is defined as a serious disturbance in a person’s mood, which greatly interferes with his/her ability to function effectively, for instance, ability to eat, work, have fun, and sleep. Even though, people experience mood swings from time to time, extreme low feelings of unhappiness that are caused by disappointment, setbacks, and daily struggles with life can make an individual feel apathetic, empty, and lifeless. These are critical signs of depression. If an individual fails to overcome these emotional and psychological challenges, depression takes hold of him/her, thus, decreasing ability of his or her body to function normally. In advanced forms of depression, body systems, such as the digestive system, central nervous system and lymphatic system, ceases to function normally. As a result of this, depression has been associated with loss of appetites, sexual drive, sleep, and ability to enjoy hobbies in people suffering from its chronic forms.

Psychiatrists and researchers in the mental health sector have identified two forms of depressive disorders, namely the clinical major depressive disorder (MDD) and the manic bipolar disorder (MBD). The bipolar disorder is characterized by flashing episodes of hypomania or mania, which are generally marred with depressive episodes in between. Researchers hold the firm belief that the full blown clinical major depressive disorder develops from bipolar disorder, in case no therapeutic measures are taken to avert the latter from further developing (Clarke, 2010). Several research studies have been conducted in the wider fields of neuroscience and psychiatry, to investigate the possible impacts of depression on the functions of brain in regard to memory. The research paper will study the results of these researches and prove that depression can seriously damage the ill person’s memory.

Effects of Depression in Memory

According to Professor Gary B. Nash (2008), head of the neuroscience Department on the College of Hamburg people hurting from bipolar depression and also the major depressive disorder depressive disorders have problems with the brain functions and main nervous systems in general; furthermore, the structures of the minds are deformed to some greater extent. The latest head imaging techniques disclose that will transmission of the urges in the neurons of the brain within a healthy individual is totally different from the depressed person’ s one. Most remarkably, the neural transmission in depressed patients seems to be abnormal, slow and fluctuating inside magnitude. This indicates of which impulses are not sufficient and stable enough to support the normal functioning of the brain, such as memory.

Memory will be one of the most important executive functions of the particular brain, which is affected by depression. Throughout his / her research studies, Nash (2008) observed that 80% regarding his patients suffering from both bipolar and main depressive disorder were really forgetful and experienced much difficulty making decision, commencing tasks, organizing thoughts, plus planning future actions. The rates at which depressed patients forgot to recall past incidences were alarming. This particular was a clear indication that there was a correlation between memory damage and depression. In several instances, it was seen that those suffering from chronic depression do not really perform regular actions, including eating and cleaning up their own rooms, on their personal initiative. Although this certain insufficient the drive is usually caused by a withdrawal syndrome, loss in coordination and interrupted neural transmission within typically the brain is at perform (Clarke, 2010).

There are several theories advanced to explain how depression causes memory loss. The neurotransmitter model explains that imbalances of bio-chemicals, namely neurotransmitters, relay impulses between the neurons of different brain cells (dendrites) to ensure communication and coordination between different parts of the brain. Consequently, the ability of the brain to store new information is highly compromised.

Depression impairs the power of the brainn to generate and sustain long term memories, which is often confused with forgetfulness. Clarke (2010) is categorical and states that lack of concentration and attention is caused by the reduced activity of the brain. When information is being passed to the short term memory, it cannot be stored within the brain cells for a longer period. Considering that a depressed person is known to be too unfocused and inattentive in the process of filing passing events temporarily in the short term memory, much information goes unnoticed, hence, cannot be recalled.

Nevertheless, depression plays a very significant role in skewing the type and nature of memories, which patients are inclined to recall. In his article, Nash (2008) explains that the depressed people are deeply skewed in the manner they recall information, while being in their melancholic state. The depressed persons have been observed to recall actively mostly forlorn experiences, which evoke negative feelings of dejection. The psychiatrist maintains that it is this selective recall of negative experiences by the depressed persons that people around them interpret as a memory loss. Moreover, this peculiar ability to remember negative experiences further aggravates the pangs of depression to deeper levels. At the bottom line, patient’s drab and depressing view of life increases the magnitude of depression.

Finally, the brain imaging technology, called positron emission tomography (PET), has also accentuated a reliable connection between memory and depression. The positron emission tomography (PET) reveals that the activity of the brain cells, located in the frontal lobes of the brain, is reduced significantly in depressed people. This is caused by the lower concentration of a brain chemical, serotonin, which provides cells with the energy they require to function optimally.

In conclusion, depression devastatingly reduces the ability of the brain to capture, store and retrieve information in the depressed person due to the resultant reduced activity of the brain cells.

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Effects of Malpractice Insurance Cost on the Healthcare System essay


This paper looks into the ways by which malpractice insurance cost has affected the healthcare system. To achieve this, it will address several issues which include: the role of malpractice insurance cost in healthcare organizations; its role in relation to the manner in which risk management has been dealt with across the healthcare industry; how malpractice insurance cost impacts the staffing capability, cost of healthcare, as well as other activities in the healthcare industry at large. Additionally, the paper will look into the ways by which malpractice insurance cost relates to the regulatory environment provided by the government. The involvement of other relevant healthcare organizations and other interest groups in the healthcare system will be also described based on how they contribute to determining the ways the risk management practices are carried out in the United States. Towards the end, the paper will recommend new strategies that can be used while implementing malpractice insurance cost in healthcare organizations. Any impacts malpractice insurance cost might have on the healthcare policy will also be looked into.

Effects of Malpractice Insurance Cost on the Healthcare System


Risk management can be defined as the process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks. It is then followed by the harmonized and cost-effective use of resources to reduce, monitor and organize the likelihood and influence of adverse turns of events or to make the most of the realization of prospects. Risks can be due to ambiguity in financial markets, legal liabilities, accidents, project failures, credit risks, natural disasters and causes in addition to premeditated attack from an enemy or events of unpredictable or uncertain root-cause. More than a few risk management principles have been established. Definitions, methods and objectives have a wide variance depending on whether the risk management technique is in the framework of actuarial assessments, security, project management, engineering, financial portfolios, industrial processes, or public safety.

According to Emslie & Hancock (2008), healthcare chance management is dynamic plus involving. Professionals in this specific sector work across different sectors in the medical care industry. Malpractice insurance is a kind of specialized liability insurance bought by the healthcare employees. Its insurance coverage appears after healthcare givers in opposition to patients who take legal action against them below the assertion that they were harmed due in order to the doctor’ s reckless or deliberately damaging remedy verdict. Premiums are definitely more frequently based on the healthcare provider’s area of expertise and geographic area but not on claims information. This means that even if legal action is never taken against a physician, he or she can end up paying tremendously large premiums. Premiums can elevate because of various elements like claims severity, quantity of coverage needed, area of practice, claims rate of recurrence and the areas of legislation (Emslie & Hancock, 2008). The strategies used in chance management include passing the danger onto another party, making certain the risk does not occur, minimizing its bad effects, and sometimes taking the problems that may possibly occur due to the risk plus owning up to them.

Literature Review

Several studies possess been carried out centering on malpractice insurance cost on the health system. According to Youngberg (2010), the current economic climate in the country has forced healthcare providers to be able to evaluate the efficiency of their operations. Most of typically the healthcare organizations have been keen on profit making rather than providing quality healthcare and safeguarding the lives of the employees. Nonetheless, it ought to be understood of which it is very not likely that the organization can operate for some time without supporting their expenditures. However, the question is how much chance organizations should take to meet these expenditures.

Kavaler & Spiegel (2003) argue that the biggest issue of risk management is definitely demonstrating its value. It is far from clear how one might quantify something that will not happen even though this was prevented. Furthermore, typically the healthcare industry is mainly based on measurement and benchmarking. Consequently , it becomes difficult to make a circumstance on risk management. The particular greatest challenge here is situated in coming up with a metrics that could be used to successfully and effectively measure their value. However, the authors affirm that risikomanagement may help in improving the top quality of care provided in order to the patients. Furthermore, it reduces the chances of a negative outcome escalating in to a malpractice claim. Almost all in all, the ultimate goal of risk supervision is to minimize risk in whatever situations.

Malpractice torts claims can be found on the day to day running of typically the healthcare industry. However, a new study by Groszkruger (2011) shows that most situations of negligence or difficulties never enter the tort system and many of the particular alleations has no merit. Moreover, there is extremely limited evidence that the process of malpractice litigations stops malpractices or pinpoints bad doctors. Therefore, there is certainly need to put found in place measures that will help inside improving the risk administration process rather than concetrating on disciplining the health care providers. Different nvironmental and personal exposures triggered by qualitative and quantitative assessment of health dangers to human beings have got become a key concern for governements` decisions related to risk management.

Risk management in healthcare market

Emslie & Hancock (2008) allege that the existing financial surroundings is continuing to force healthcare organizations to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiencies of their operation. Getting maximum profits or in least avoiding losses provides been at the front side position of business targets. Hardly any organizations can carry on to exist ultimately without having meeting their expenditures. Risk management is characteristically a new fusion of functions joining a number of disciplines to lessen the occurrence of institutional loss. Steps can be down to be able to business, attempting to avert or mitigate a loss or reactive or rather damage control.

Chance management approaches in the particular healthcare sector seek in order to decrease the chances of hazards and losses. These methods direct efforts into four key directions: detection regarding possible risks, approximations associated with the possibility of a good unfavorable effect, estimations associated with the magnitude of typically the unpleasant effect and managing the risk. In medication specifically, risk management method seeks to advance the value of medical care and cut off typically the relative level of medical wrong doings claim. Risikomanagement system also analyzes malpractice claims. These types of efforts are directed toward the reduction of the probability of damage to individuals.

Being a main idea in modern healthcare management across the world, risk management deals with a range of issues. These issues contain safety of the sufferers, occupational safety and system safety. Its extent likewise covers quality improvement and accident investigation. Risk within healthcare transforms into surgical mistakes an unexpected loss of life and wrong diagnosis or perhaps treatment. The greater portion of these incidences can cause legal action. Risk supervision techniques support both positive and reactive measures. Whereas proactive efforts seek out to avert the prevalence of bad situations, reactive techniques address hostile occasions which have right now took place. Even though data are critical for undertaking positive or rather down to business proceedings, details about risk inside healthcare sector are not necessarily at all times strong.

Youngberg (2010) affirms that the majority of the impediments due to medical treatment and inattention do not result to malpractice tort claims. For this reason, statistics cannot address these instances. Moreover, in several cases judicial measures do not succeed in detecting the malpractice.

Given that steady establishment for business administration and financial liability like other types of risk management, healthcare risk management also deals with a number of specific notions which are not distinctive of business in general. These include failure mode outcome analysis, adverse incident, root cause analysis and incident reports. An unpleasant occasion is a grievance set off by medical intrusion. Failure mode outcome analysis facilitates the detection of possible failures. Incident reports provide evidence of events which are unexpected in medical practice. Root cause analysis, on the other hand, makes out the most fundamental factors which lead to difference in outcome.

A report by Emslie & Hancock (2008) shows that risk management has various impacts on healthcare. Some of these impacts include an increase to the costs of health. However, contrary to what most people believe, the costs of malpractice in the healthcare organization are not too high, therefore, leading to a small increase in the cost of healthcare. Healthcare risk control or rather management became a key issue in American healthcare system in the 1970s during the purported medical malpractice insurance predicament. The insurance premiums in California shot up by over 300 percent due to frequent accountability claims. This tendency drove a lot of physicians, especially those implicated in high-risk regions, such as obstetrics and neurosurgery, out of the profession. In the mid 1970s, Governor Jerry Brown called for the state’s legislature with the intention of addressing the malpractice disaster. The state of affairs called for a more strict safety and answerability rules and traceability of medical disasters.

Medical responsibility premiums in the US grew rapidly in the 1980s. This compelled some of states to control malpractice insurance costs. In spite of the actions undertaken from then on, the healthcare organization is faced with a constant need to advance its risk management approaches. Previous research has acknowledged problems with medical care and safety, underinvestment in IT and hopeless IT systems in addition to shortages of competent employees among others. For this reason, the healthcare system can advance its implementation by an enhanced focus of the risk management process. Specialists recommend that risk management processes should be rooted into healthcare planning and operations (Kavaler & Spiegel, 2003).

Because of qualms in information, the health establishment directs significant efforts into the reporting and identification of events in healthcare. These authorities try to make out and address possible tort claims, evaluate complaints and document possibly difficult procedures. To reduce risks, health establishments pay fastidious consideration to ensuring the primarry and ongoing proficiency of staff, while assessment and criticism are also fundamental to effectual risk management procedures.

Formerly, the quality improvement and risk management functions over and over again functioned independently in healthcare organizations and persons in charge of each task had dissimilar position of reporting. This was an organizational arrangement that additionally separated quality improvement and risk management. In the present day, quality improvement and risk management efforts in healthcare organizations are concerned with patient safety and coming up with ways to work jointly more efficiently and effectively to make sure that their organizations convey quality and safe patient care.

A number of programs in the last couple of years have assisted to form and advance a union between quality improvement and risk management. These comprise of the joint commission standards for safety of the patient, the federal government’s purchasing provisions based on value and efforts of the private sector to improve the quality of healthcare. As a result, some larger institutions are shifting quality improvement, risk management and patient safety actions to one department. In lesser organizations, the quality improvement manager and risk manager are better synchronizing their efforts where they have common characteristics to make certain better placement of patient safety scheme and use of scarce resources (Kraus, 2010).

If demonstration of cost savings can also be made, it would address those individuals who are responsible for managing the sector’s financial activities. There are various ways in which business cases can be created. To begin with, one could associate a decline in malpractice assertions or protection funds connected to disclosure or the patient relations procedure – there have been some lately in print information of success. Alternatively you could make obvious a decrease in reported unpleasant proceedings in connection to execution of precise targeted lines of attack,  for instance, decrease of falls subsequent to accomplishment of a falls decrease program or the utilization of skin care code of behavior to put off skin ulcers. Another strategy could be to work in association with an insurance carrier loss control specialists or broker to get your hands on risk management credit that will have a positive influence to your rate of insurance.


Emslie & Hancock (2008) allege that although statistics are very important in the risk management pocess, the manageers involved should be more keen and improve their visibility to make the process better. There are a number of strategies that can be put in place to improve the risk management process. For instance, the doctors should be involved in the Board of Director conventions that offer education on inner risk management matters, how the matters are being handled, and the industry trends. Attending such seminars will provide insight into ways of dealing with problems at the workplace. Alternatively, doctors can learn how to be efficient in their practices to avoid possibilities of malpractice costs.

Secondly, it is important that doctors and risk management personnel host regular meetings with senior management to discuss the actions in the organizations and how the entire process can be improved. The safety of patients should be the most important agenda in the discussions. Once the patients are safe, there will be minimal chances of malpractices emanating from the healthcare organization. However, there is need to involve every stakeholder in the discussion to generate better ideas of dealing with the issues.

It is also very important that the healthcare organization responds to the requirements by the stakeholder in time. This helps in ironing out any differences that might arise before the problems runs out of control. Ideally, it is easier to solve problems at the institutional level rather than allowing it to involve many parties that would make it more complicated (Groszkruger, 2011).

 Additionally, healthcare personnel should be on the frontline of ventures that are meant to spearhead the achievement of the goals and ideas. To achieve this, there is need for them to take part in educational programs that would improve their skills. They should also be part of the committees that work to come up with initiatives of improving the risk management programs in the industry. Sharing ideas with key stakeholders in the industry will lessen the burden of addressing risks that might have been prevented. Doctors should also concentrate on their specialized obligations making it a main concern to meet time limits.


Risk management in healthcare sector plays a major role in the welfare of both the patients and the medical practitioners. Various parties including the government and the private sector have shown great interest in improving risk management in healthcare, therefore, ensuring an immense growth in this field. Due to its necessities, various strategies have also been implemented to ensure that this sector continues to grow. More so, the necessity of risk management in healthcare field has also influenced the policy making in various countries (Groszkruger, 2011). The main challenge facing risk management in health care is the measure of its value.

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Effects of Substance Abuse essay


Effective treatment can be difficult for substance abusers. Research has made progress on understanding the behavior of substance abusers. Prevention is considered the best way to follow when it comes to substance abuse. Children and teenagers should be educated and given awareness on the effects of substance abuse.

Substance abuse intoxicates a person, affects judgment and perception. Withdraw can cause anxiety and seizures. Drug overdose can also lead to death. Substance abusers, who want to stop using the drugs, will want to do it by themselves. This has, however, proven not to be easy. Checking into a rehabilitation centre for thrree months can promise significant improvement on the part of the abuser. At the centre, they start with recovery, which is helpful in preventing relapse. Behavioral treatment involves a counselor, who becomes the friend of the abuser during the time at the centre. Alcoholics can join an alcoholic anonymous that guides them on best way to kick out the bad habit. According to Abadinsky (300), this works well as there are other people, who are also suffering the same. There are medications like the methadone and nicotine patches that can be prescribed to the abuser.


People abuse drugs for varied reasons. The people around them like close families and friends should play a vital role in the recovery of the abuser. Showing support and not neglecting them can be helpful. According to Rice (72), the final decision for recovery should be left to the substance abuser to decide. Forcing a person can be have negative effects and may make it worse for the abuser. Strict laws and policies should be reinforced so that the people involved in peddling the drugs can be arrested. If the drugs are not available, the numbers of the substance abusers will decline.

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